Groundwater Quality and Potential Health Risk in Zhambyl Region, Kazakhstan
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area Description
- The first phase lasting 30 days consisted of the fieldwork surveys of existing water wells in the Merke, Shu, and Korday districts in the Zhambyl region (Figure 2). The fieldwork surveys were concentrated on the inventory of wells, including
- Wells coordinates, latitude, longitude, and elevation recording with Global Positioning System (GPS);
- Wells flow rates measurements;
- In situ parameters, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and water tables were measured as MSL.
- During the second phase, the field survey works were expanded:
- More hydrogeological investigations were provided with measurements continuation of the wells flow rates, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity;
- Well water samples were collected for laboratory analyses.
- During the third phase, the collected field data samples were processed and analyzed. During field surveys in the study area in Merke, Shu, and Korday districts of the Zhambyl region, several hundred hydrogeological wells were identified, of which more than half were artesian wells (Table 1, Figure 4). In most wells, groundwater was without the well-spring. Submersible pumps are installed in some wells. In a third of the wells, the wells are clogged with stones. Clogged wells need to be cleaned using an airlift method or new wells need to be drilled. The survey showed that 90% of artesian wells are within the Merke district in the Zhambyl region.
2.2. Sampling and Data Preparation
2.2.1. Laboratory Analysis
Alpha and Beta Activities Measurements
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Groundwater Chemistry
3.2. Data and Database
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|No.||Administrative Region||Total Inspected Well||With Well-Spring||Without Well-Spring||With Pump||Clogged by Stones|
|Well No.||Geographic Coordinates||Brief Description of Wells||Flow Rate, L/S||Photo of Wells|
|Northern Latitude||East Longitude|
|2||42° 52′ 42.84″||73° 5′ 50.91″||Spouting well is located opposite the Aktogan village.|
t of water in the well is 17.7 °C
pH = 8.0
|6||42° 53′ 4.37″||73° 2′ 44.06″||Spouting well is located 5 km west of the Aktogan village.|
t of water in the well is 17.6 °C
pH = 7.9
|8||42° 52′ 53.00″||73° 25′ 16.09″||Spouting well is located on the outskirts of the Makhanda village.|
t of water in the well is 11 °C
pH = 8.4
|9||42° 52′ 54.55″||73° 25′ 12.31″||Spouting well is located at the entrance of Makhanda village.|
t of water in the well is 11.9 °C
pH = 8.3
|60||42° 53′ 3.10″||73° 28′ 40.30″||Spouting well is located to the north of Kyzylkistak village, 1.2 km.|
t of water in the well is 15.0 °C
pH = 8.6
|22||42° 58′ 55.68″||73° 17′ 15.05″||Spouting is located in the territory of Sypatay Batyr enterprise.|
t of water in the well is 17.8 °C
pH = 8.5
|136||43° 6′ 16.50″||73° 28′21.00″||Wellbore clogged by rocks and foreign materials||-|
|43||42° 50′2.50″||73° 24′42.80″||Wellbore clogged by rocks and other materials||-|
|Parameter||Unit||Dry Season (November 2020)||Wet Season (April 2021)||Drinking Water Standards|
|No.||No.||Total Alpha Activity, Bq/L||Drinking Water Standards||Total Alpha Activity, Bq/L||Drinking Water Standards|
|Cl||mg/L||6.9||10.2||21.3||0.1873||Little if any correlation|
|HCO3||mg/L||15.2||54.4||183.1||0.9629||Very high correlation|
|SO4||mg/L||21.5||28.6||56.0||0.974||Very high correlation|
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Adenova, D.; Tazhiyev, S.; Sagin, J.; Absametov, M.; Murtazin, Y.; Trushel, L.; Miroshnichenko, O.; Zaryab, A. Groundwater Quality and Potential Health Risk in Zhambyl Region, Kazakhstan. Water 2023, 15, 482. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030482
Adenova D, Tazhiyev S, Sagin J, Absametov M, Murtazin Y, Trushel L, Miroshnichenko O, Zaryab A. Groundwater Quality and Potential Health Risk in Zhambyl Region, Kazakhstan. Water. 2023; 15(3):482. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030482Chicago/Turabian Style
Adenova, Dinara, Sultan Tazhiyev, Janay Sagin, Malis Absametov, Yermek Murtazin, Ludmila Trushel, Oxana Miroshnichenko, and Abdulhalim Zaryab. 2023. "Groundwater Quality and Potential Health Risk in Zhambyl Region, Kazakhstan" Water 15, no. 3: 482. https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030482