Next Article in Journal
Study on the Effect of Water Flux in Osmotic Microbial Fuel Cells on Membrane Water Content and Resistance
Next Article in Special Issue
A Note of a Unique Inland, Saline Water Fishery: Brine Flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) of Lake Cuitzeo, Mexico
Previous Article in Journal
Identification of Water Contamination Sources Using Hydrochemical and Isotopic Studies—The Kozłowa Góra Reservoir Catchment Area (Southern Poland)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Human-Induced Sharp Salinity Changes in the World’s Largest Hypersaline Lagoon Bay Sivash (Crimea) and Their Effects on the Ecosystem
 
 
Article

Applying Generic Water Quality Criteria to Cu and Zn in a Dynamic Aquatic Environment—The Case of the Brackish Water Formation Strömmen-Saltsjön

1
Envix Nord AB, 906 20 Umeå, Sweden
2
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Department of Chemistry, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
3
AIMES—Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
4
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nickolai Shadrin, Elena Anufriieva and Gonzalo Gajardo
Water 2022, 14(6), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060847
Received: 24 January 2022 / Revised: 24 February 2022 / Accepted: 28 February 2022 / Published: 8 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
The EU Water Framework Directive stipulates that all EU waterways shall have good chemical and ecological status by 2027. Methodologies are described for how to assess and classify waterbodies and make 7-year management plans. Aquatic risk assessment methodologies and environmental quality standards are defined and a biotic ligand model methodology is available to assess the influence of water chemistry on the ability of aquatic organisms to take up metals. Aquatic status classification practices of naturally occurring river basin-specific metals are discussed, specifically how Cu and Zn water quality criteria guideline values have been adopted and defined for Swedish coastal and estuarine waters and how well they represent possible ecological risks. Calculations of bioavailability and ecotoxicity are conducted using recognised models for the Strömmen-Saltsjön water body in Stockholm, in which naturally occurring metals, especially Cu, have among the highest background concentrations of Sweden. Proposals are made to improve risk assessment methodologies to better reflect the vitality of living organisms, and to what extent current levels of these metals in Swedish waterways may influence their welfare. The study concludes that a more local assessment including, e.g., studies of the benthic fauna would be relevant for ecological status classification. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality criteria guideline values; status classification; brackish water; copper; zinc water quality criteria guideline values; status classification; brackish water; copper; zinc
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ragnvaldsson, D.; Herting, G.; Jönsson, A.; Odnevall, I. Applying Generic Water Quality Criteria to Cu and Zn in a Dynamic Aquatic Environment—The Case of the Brackish Water Formation Strömmen-Saltsjön. Water 2022, 14, 847. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060847

AMA Style

Ragnvaldsson D, Herting G, Jönsson A, Odnevall I. Applying Generic Water Quality Criteria to Cu and Zn in a Dynamic Aquatic Environment—The Case of the Brackish Water Formation Strömmen-Saltsjön. Water. 2022; 14(6):847. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060847

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ragnvaldsson, Daniel, Gunilla Herting, Anders Jönsson, and Inger Odnevall. 2022. "Applying Generic Water Quality Criteria to Cu and Zn in a Dynamic Aquatic Environment—The Case of the Brackish Water Formation Strömmen-Saltsjön" Water 14, no. 6: 847. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060847

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop