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Article

Detection of Eight Cannabinoids and One Tracer in Wastewater and River Water by SPE-UPLC–ESI-MS/MS

1
Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
2
Department of European Cultures (DICEM), University of Basilicata, 75100 Matera, Italy
3
Tab Consulting S.r.l.s, 85100 Potenza, Italy
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Department of Geography, Environmental Management & Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2092, South Africa
5
IAREN—Instituto da Água da Região Norte, 4450-113 Porto, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marisa Almeida
Water 2022, 14(4), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040588
Received: 3 January 2022 / Revised: 4 February 2022 / Accepted: 13 February 2022 / Published: 15 February 2022
The consumption of illicit drugs represents a global social and economic problem. Using suitable analytical methods, monitoring, and detection of different illegal drugs residues and their metabolites in wastewater samples can help combat this problem. Our article defines a method to develop, validate, and practically applicate a rapid and robust analytical process for the evaluation of six naturally occurring cannabinoids (CBG, CBD, CBDV, CBN, THC, THCV), two cannabinoids in acidic form (CBDA, THCA-A), and the major cannabis-related human metabolite (THC-COOH). After SPE offline enrichment, we used a UPLC–ESI-MS/MS system, which permitted the determination of several by-products. Studied matrices were samples of different origins: (i) effluent water from a wastewater treatment plant in the Porto urban area; (ii) environmental water from Febros River, the last left-bank tributary of the Douro River. The multi-residue approach was substantiated and successfully employed to analyze the water samples collected in the above locations. The rapid and precise quantification of nine different cannabinoids in different water samples occurred within nine minutes at the ng L−1 level. The appearance of dozens of ng L−1 of some cannabis secondary metabolites, such as CBD, CBDA, CBN, THCA-A, indicates this plant species’ widespread usage among the general population in the considered area. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemp; Cannabis sativa; cannabinoids; wastewater; drug consumption; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry hemp; Cannabis sativa; cannabinoids; wastewater; drug consumption; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Milan, S.; Lelario, F.; Scrano, L.; Ottati, C.; Bufo, S.A.; Alpendurada, M.d.F. Detection of Eight Cannabinoids and One Tracer in Wastewater and River Water by SPE-UPLC–ESI-MS/MS. Water 2022, 14, 588. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040588

AMA Style

Milan S, Lelario F, Scrano L, Ottati C, Bufo SA, Alpendurada MdF. Detection of Eight Cannabinoids and One Tracer in Wastewater and River Water by SPE-UPLC–ESI-MS/MS. Water. 2022; 14(4):588. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040588

Chicago/Turabian Style

Milan, Simone, Filomena Lelario, Laura Scrano, Chiara Ottati, Sabino Aurelio Bufo, and Maria de Fátima Alpendurada. 2022. "Detection of Eight Cannabinoids and One Tracer in Wastewater and River Water by SPE-UPLC–ESI-MS/MS" Water 14, no. 4: 588. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040588

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