The Use of Lime for Drainage of Cohesive Soils Built into Hydraulic Engineering Embankments
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Szalejów Górny
2.2. Soil Deposits within the Reservoir Basin
2.3. Dam Body
2.4. Moisture Content of the Soil in the Deposits vs. the Degree of Compaction of the Embankment
- Is—compaction index [-]
- ϱds—bulk density of soil skeleton compacted in the embankment [t/m3]
- ϱd max—maximum bulk density of the soil skeleton compacted in the embankment obtained using the appropriate compaction method [t/m3]
2.5. Soil Drainage and Stabilisation
2.5.1. Mechanical Drainage
- Soil loosening from the deposit along an inclined surface crosses the entire thickness of the layer at a gradient that allows water to drain away.
- Soil dumping with the appropriate gradient of the embankment.
- Transport of the material to the drying site or directly to the dam body layer.
- Moving, loosening, and breaking up the soil to expose it to the sun and wind.
- Compacting smoothly with a gradient that allows water to run off during rainfall.
2.5.2. Chemical Drainage—Lime Stabilisation
- Slaked lime (hydrated lime, Ca(OH)2)—medium cohesive soils.
- Hydraulic lime (2CaOSiO2, CaOAl2O3)—low-cohesive soils, gravels, and sandy gravels with a lower plasticity index.
- Quicklime (CaO)—very cohesive soils and acidic soils with higher humic content.
3.1. Mechanical Drainage
3.2. Chemical Drainage—Lime Stabilisation
3.3. Comparison of the Two Soil Drainage Technologies
3.4. Parameters of the Soil Built into the Szalejów Górny Dam Body
- Hydraulic conductivity—the ability of the soil to transmit water, expressed by the distance travelled by the fluid in the soil in one second.
- Degree of plasticity—the state of the soil between the compact state (IL < 0) and the liquid state (IL > 1).
- Plasticity index—the amount of water a soil absorbs when changing from a semi-compact to a liquid state; defines the state of the material in a range from loose material (Ip < 1%) to very cohesive material (Ip > 30%).
- Angle of repose—a parameter depending, among others, on the granulometric composition and degree of compaction, describing the shear strength, i.e., the resistance that the soil gives to shear stress at the point in the medium.
- Cohesion—the internal pressure resulting from the mutual attraction between soil particles balanced by repulsive forces, correlated with the number of particles per unit volume of the soil and describing its resistance to deformation.
4. Discussion and Conclusions
4.1. Overview of Soil Testing
4.1.1. The Effect of Changes in Moisture Content and Filtration on Lime-Stabilised Soil
4.1.2. Change in Soil Parameters after Stabilisation and Compaction
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Dam length||735 m|
|Dam volume||914,000 m3|
|Capacity at MaxPP 1||10.67 million m3|
|Damming height at MaxPP||18.85 m|
|Lagoon area at MaxPP||118.7 ha|
|Layer Designation||Type of Soil||Description||Abundance of Deposits [m3]|
|Deposit 1||Deposit 2||Deposit 3|
|I||Clay with gravel and pebbles||Pebbles 5–10%||43,700||103,450||229,950|
|II||Pebbles filled with gravel and sandy gravel||Stone fraction |
|III||Interbedded medium sands. Stone fraction 50–70%|
|IV||Clay and silty clay||Partly with fine debris||-||-||379,000|
|Type of Soil||Content of Gravel fraction [%]||Earth Dam Bodies|
|Height h < 15 m||Height h > 15 m|
|Cohesive soils||0–25||Is ≥ 0.95||Is ≥ 0.98 1|
|26–50||Is ≥ 0.92||Is ≥ 0.95|
|coarse > 50||Is ≥ 0.90||Is ≥ 0.93|
|Layer Designation||Hydraulic Conductivity [m/s]||Natural Moisture Content [%]||Optimum Moisture Content [%]|
|I||6.5 × 10−7–9 × 10−6||17.5–19.3||15.1–16.7|
|II||5.3 × 10−5–1.5 × 10−4||8.5–10.1||6.1–7.2|
|CaO + MgO||≥90%|
|Soil Category||Plasticity Index|
|Degree of Plasticity|
|Angle of Repose|
|Max.||21.3||0.14||1.20||2.25 × 10−8||31.4||74.6|
|Min.||17.3||−0.03||0.22||9.8 × 10−11||11.4||15.4|
|Avg.||19.1||0.068||0.59||5.39 × 10−9||20.2||40.5|
|Max.||22.4||−0.07||4.8||1.87 × 10−7||39.9||171.4|
|Min.||8.1||−1.11||0.65||2.35 × 10−9||9.3||16.4|
|Avg.||16||−0.33||2.0||3.87 × 10−8||27.0||78.1|
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Połomski, M.; Wiatkowski, M. The Use of Lime for Drainage of Cohesive Soils Built into Hydraulic Engineering Embankments. Water 2022, 14, 3700. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223700
Połomski M, Wiatkowski M. The Use of Lime for Drainage of Cohesive Soils Built into Hydraulic Engineering Embankments. Water. 2022; 14(22):3700. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223700Chicago/Turabian Style
Połomski, Maksymilian, and Mirosław Wiatkowski. 2022. "The Use of Lime for Drainage of Cohesive Soils Built into Hydraulic Engineering Embankments" Water 14, no. 22: 3700. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14223700