Accidental introduction of nonindigenous aquatic species (NIAS) is usually mediated by shipping through ballast water. Ballast water management plans are being developed and implemented around the world to prevent the spread of NIAS. However, for marine environmental management, incorporating stakeholders’ perceptions into designing and formulating management plans is key to achieving successful implementation. This study used qualitative interviews and grounded theory to induce the influencing factors and conceptual model of stakeholders’ perceptions on ballast water management (BWM) issues. The interplay of the pressure–state–response conceptual model based on grounded theory was established to elaborate on stakeholders’ perceptions. The study results indicated that local ballast water management required comprehensive port state control (PSC) and technical competency development. Second, an international commercial port can be used as a demonstration area to demonstrate the effectiveness and the potential benefits of BWM implementation due to its potential to link with international networks. Moreover, legislation, surveying/monitoring, institutional capacity and outreach/education are the four fundamentals to marine bio-invasion management. Initiating ballast water management measures as part of port environmental management aims to enhance marine pollution management capacity, especially in the field of marine bio-invasion management.
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