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Article

Social–Ecological Impact Assessment and Success Factors of a Water Reuse System for Irrigation Purposes in Central Northern Namibia

1
ISOE—Institute for Social-Ecological Research, 60486 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2
Independent Researcher, 60486 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Martin Wagner and Sonja Bauer
Water 2022, 14(15), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152381
Received: 1 June 2022 / Revised: 21 July 2022 / Accepted: 28 July 2022 / Published: 1 August 2022
With regard to water supply constraints, water reuse has already become an indispensable water resource. In many regions of southern Africa, so-called waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) represent a widespread method of sewage disposal. Since capacity bottlenecks lead to overflowing ponds and contamination, a concept was designed and piloted in order to upgrade a plant and reuse water in agriculture. Using a social–ecological impact assessment (SEIA), the aim of this study was to identify and evaluate intended and unintended impacts of the upgrading of an existing WSP to reuse water for livestock fodder production. For this purpose, semistructured expert interviews were conducted. In addition, a scenario analysis was carried out regarding a sustainable operation of the water reuse system. The evaluation of the impacts has shown that intended positive impacts clearly outweigh the unintended ones. The scenario analysis revealed the consequences of an inadequate management of the system and low fodder demand. Furthermore, the analysis showed that good management of such a system is of fundamental importance in order to operate the facility, protect nature and assist people. This allows subsequent studies to minimize negative impacts and replicate the concept in regions with similar conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: casual loop diagrams; livestock fodder production; scenario analysis; semistructured interviews; waste stabilisation ponds casual loop diagrams; livestock fodder production; scenario analysis; semistructured interviews; waste stabilisation ponds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zimmermann, M.; Neu, F. Social–Ecological Impact Assessment and Success Factors of a Water Reuse System for Irrigation Purposes in Central Northern Namibia. Water 2022, 14, 2381. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152381

AMA Style

Zimmermann M, Neu F. Social–Ecological Impact Assessment and Success Factors of a Water Reuse System for Irrigation Purposes in Central Northern Namibia. Water. 2022; 14(15):2381. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152381

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zimmermann, Martin, and Felix Neu. 2022. "Social–Ecological Impact Assessment and Success Factors of a Water Reuse System for Irrigation Purposes in Central Northern Namibia" Water 14, no. 15: 2381. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152381

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