Assessing Groundwater Dynamics and Potentiality in the Lower Ganga Plain, India
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Database and Analysis
2.3. Applied Methodology
- 1st Step is to construct the pairwise contrast between each criteria (Table 3). This comparison describes an integer value ranging from 1 (equally preferred) to 9 (extremely preferred), and the higher value signifies that the chosen criteria is considered to be more imperative, with superior implications.
- 2nd Step is carrying out the matrix.
- 3rd Step is normalization and determination of weight of each criteria.
- 4th Step is calculating the Consistency Ratio (CR) (Table 4). This is calculated by the equation: CR = Consistency Index (CI)/Random Index (RI)
2.4. Significant Contributing Factors and Multi-Criteria Analysis of Groundwater
2.4.1. Elevation and Aspect
2.4.4. Irrigation and Cropping
2.4.7. Drainage Density
2.4.8. Lineament Density
2.4.9. Topographic Wetness Index
2.4.10. Topographic Position Index
2.4.12. Soil Texture
- Gc (Calcaric Gleysols)—It shows hydromorphic properties of the surface (<50 cm); having only A, H, and B horizons with cambic or calcic or gypsic character.
- Jc (Calcaric Fluvisols)—It is generated from fresh alluvial deposits with ochric or umbric or sulfuric horizons. Conditionally, they have high resilience and low sensitivity, but are much prized for intensive agriculture.
- Lo (Orthic Luvisols)—It has a high pedestal saturation (>50%), which is seriously exaggerated by water erosion and thus has low organic matter.
- Ne (Eutric Nitosols)—It is considered as the most excellent and fertile soils of the tropics as it can suffer acidity and P-fixation. It has modest toughness and a reasonable to stumpy compassion. It was found in the western parts of the district, which is not suitable for groundwater storage.
2.4.13. Land Use Land Cover (LULC)
3.1. Groundwater Potential Zone
3.2. Groundwater Storage
3.3. Arsenic Contamination
3.4. Groundwater Depth
3.5. Groundwater Recharge
3.6. Utilization of Groundwater
- The information, maps, upshots gathered in the present endeavour ought to be included in strategy planning in an appropriate way. Thus, the efficient water uses in most of the blocks of the district can be ensured as the net annual groundwater is more than its gross uses.
- The block level micro-planning, and sustainable groundwater scheduling should be accentuated by endorsing exterior water protection, an astute use of water, configuration of progressive tariffs on water, enhancing consciousness, promoting water-saving practices, apposite irrigation planning and systematic scheduling of water distribution.
- The supervision and arrangement of GWS and integrated and restricted LULC must be encouraged and howsoever, upgrading the local governance, building of strategic control in excess of the infrastructural expansion by executing and implementing plans at the blocks, as it is painstaking as a momentous administrative unit.
- The awareness regarding the enhanced reality of depletion, oscillations, scarcity, pollution of water and arsenic contamination, and its repercussions must be initiated and the sensible, efficient and effective exercise of water must be improved and continued.
- The local governing bodies and NGOs should be encouraged to campaign on apposite capacity building and a vigilance curriculum should be instigated regarding the GWS and interrelated concern.
- The availability of adequate water storage data from large observation wells, and a comprehensive study on the spatio-temporal disparity of water storage using the geospatial technology should be initiated in the district, followed by intensive spatial planning for the proficient management.
- The planning must include a vigilant inspection to generate and store pertinent and updated data of water storage and related concerns, along with the maps generated through employing geospatial techniques andthe application of scientific methods, as well as the physical and demographic temperaments of each blocks and overall standing of groundwater of the district.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Slope, Drainage||SRTM DEM||USGS (https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov (accessed on 3 February 2022))|
|Lithology||GSI map [Scale—1:250,000]||Geological Survey of India|
|Land Use Land Cover||Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI||USGS (https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov), accessed on 23 January 2022|
|Lineaments||SRTM DEM & GSI map [Scale—1:250,000]||USGS (https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov) & Geological Survey of India, accessed on 3 February 2022|
|Drainage Density||Landsat 8 O.L.I., SRTM DEM||USGS (https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov), accessed on 3 February 2022|
|Rainfall, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Topographic Position Index (TPI)||SRTM DEM CGWB data & Maps|
|USGS (https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov) & Central Groundwater Board, Government of India, accessed on 3 February 2022|
|Soil||NBSS & LUP Maps [Scale—1:1,000,000]||National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Kolkata|
|GWS, LULC, NDVI, TWI, TPI, DEM, Drainage, Slope, Lineament, Elevation, Aspect||Prepared using RS data|
|Lithology, Morphology, Geohydrology, Rainfall, Soil texture, Irrigation, Cropping map||Prepared using bibliographic data|
|GWPI map||Prepared using MCDM outputs|
|Very strong to extremely||8||1/8|
|Very strongly preferred||7||1/7|
|Strong to very strongly||6||1/6|
|Moderately to strongly||4||1/4|
|Equally to moderately||2||1/2|
|Land use land cover (LULC)||1.00||1.00||5.00||5.00||3.00||3.00||3.00||0.33||0.33|
|Soil Texture (ST)||0.20||0.20||1.00||3.00||3.00||4.00||4.00||3.00||0.33|
|Drainage Density (DD)||0.20||0.20||0.33||1.00||3.00||5.00||5.00||0.33||0.33|
|Lineament Density (LD)||0.33||0.20||0.33||0.33||1.00||3.00||3.00||3.00||5.00|
|Topographic wetness Index (TWI)||0.33||0.33||0.25||0.20||0.33||1.00||5.00||3.00||3.00|
|Topographic position Index (TPI)||0.33||0.33||0.25||0.20||0.33||0.20||1.00||5.00||5.00|
|Consistency Index (CI)||Ratio |
|Consistency Ratio (CR)|
|Land use land cover (LULC)||14.25126||2||0.142513||9.369829||0.046229||1.45||0.031882|
|Soil texture (ST)||12.32186||3||0.123219|
|Drainage Density (DD)||10.12936||4||0.101294|
|Lineament Density (LD)||10.65556||5||0.106556|
|Topographic wetness index (TWI)||8.846744||7||0.088467|
|Topographic position index (TPI)||8.320544||6||0.083205|
|Seasons and Year||Water Storage Range (mm)|
|Storage Level||Very Low||Low||Moderate||High||Very High|
|Year||Period||Storage Level||Location in the District||Expressive Remarks|
|2000||Pre-monsoon||Very High||West, North-West||The foremost parts of the district are enclosed by moderate to awfully stumpy GWS, positioned in the middle to lower segment. The high to very high GWS was found mostly in the upper part of the district. Here, the coverage of low and high GWS was almost equal and the storage amount range was 529 to 657 mm.|
|High||Central to North, West|
|Moderate||Central to West, East, South-East|
|Very Low||East, South|
|2010||Pre-monsoon||Very High||North, West||The key portions belong to modest to extremely high GWS (middle to upper part), while the low to very low GWS is concentrated in the south. The storage amount declined from 2000 and it ranges from 488 to 603 mm.|
|High||Central, North, West, North-West, South-East|
|Moderate||Central, East, South, West|
|Low||East to South|
|Very Low||East, South|
|2020||Pre-monsoon||Very High||West||The moderate to very low GWS condition was noticed in the central to lower parts. It has extra anomalies than in previous times as the very high GWS is negligibly found in a small patch in the west. Here, the GWS deteriorated from high to moderate in the north-west corner of the districts. The storage amount ranges from 492 to 686 mm, which was greater than 2010 but lower than 2000.|
|High||Central, North, West|
|Very Low||East, South|
|2000||Post-monsoon||Very High||West, North||In 2000, the GWS of the post-monsoon season was predominantly found to be of moderate to very low quantity and concerted in the middle and lower parts of the region. Most of the pre- and post-monsoonal GWS disparities were noticed in the west and southern parts. The storage amount ranges from 734 to 935 mm.|
|High||North to North-West|
|Moderate||Central, South-Central, small patch in East, North-West|
|Low||East to South, South-East|
|Very Low||East, South|
|2010||Post-monsoon||Very High||West, North||Here the amount of GWS fluctuates mostly especially in the middle to lower parts of the region compared to the pre-monsoon condition. The location of different storage level remained almost same, as the low to very low GWS is concentrated in the south and south-east. The storage amount ranges from 707 to 844 mm, lower than in 2000.|
|High||West, West to North, Central, East|
|Moderate||Central, South to South-East, North-West|
|Low||East to South, South-East, North-West|
|Very Low||East, South|
|2020||Post-monsoon||Very High||West, North to West||The improved GWS was achieved in the whole district from the pre-monsoon condition in the central to north; the west parts were covered with high and very high storage. The storage quantity also became higher than its pre-monsoon provison. The very low to low GWS was noticed in the east and south-east portion. The storage amount ranges from 764 to 984 mm, greater than in 2000 and 2010.|
|High||Central, North to West, North-West|
|Moderate||East to South|
|Low||East, South, South-East|
|Direction-wise block allocation||North (N): Lalgola, Bhogobangola-I & II, Raninagar-I & II, Raghunathgunj-I & II, South (S): Bharatpur-I & II, Nawda, Beldanga-I & II, East (E): Jalangi, Domkal, West (W): Barwan, Khargram, Nabagram, Sagardihi, Central (C): Kandi, Berhampur, Hariharpara, Jiaganj Murshidabad, NW: Farakka, Samsherganj, Suti-I & II|
|Upper portion||Lalgola, Bhogobangola-I & II, Raninagar-I & II, Raghunathgunj-I & II, Farakka, Samsherganj, Suti-I & II|
|Middle portion||Kandi, Berhampur, Hariharpara, Jiaganj Murshidabad, Barwan, Khargram, Nabagram, Sagardihi, Jalangi, Domkal|
|Lower portion||Bharatpur-I & II, Nawda, Beldanga-I & II|
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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Mondal, B.K.; Sahoo, S.; Das, R.; Mishra, P.K.; Abdelrahman, K.; Acharya, A.; Lee, M.-A.; Tiwari, A.; Fnais, M.S. Assessing Groundwater Dynamics and Potentiality in the Lower Ganga Plain, India. Water 2022, 14, 2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142180
Mondal BK, Sahoo S, Das R, Mishra PK, Abdelrahman K, Acharya A, Lee M-A, Tiwari A, Fnais MS. Assessing Groundwater Dynamics and Potentiality in the Lower Ganga Plain, India. Water. 2022; 14(14):2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142180Chicago/Turabian Style
Mondal, Biraj Kanti, Satiprasad Sahoo, Rima Das, Prabuddh Kumar Mishra, Kamal Abdelrahman, Aditi Acharya, Ming-An Lee, Anuj Tiwari, and Mohammed S. Fnais. 2022. "Assessing Groundwater Dynamics and Potentiality in the Lower Ganga Plain, India" Water 14, no. 14: 2180. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142180