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Article

Effects of Sulfamethoxazole on Growth and Antibiotic Resistance of A Natural Microbial Community

1
Institute of Polar Sciences-National Research Council (ISP-CNR), 00010 Rome, Italy
2
Water Research Institute-National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), 00010 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abasiofiok Mark Ibekwe
Water 2021, 13(9), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091262
Received: 4 April 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate of Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment)
Diffuse environmental antibiotic and antibiotic resistance gene contamination is increasing human and animal exposure to these emerging compounds with a consequent risk of reduction in antibiotic effectiveness. The present work investigated the effect of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on growth and antibiotic resistance genes of a microbial community collected from an anaerobic digestion plant fed with cattle manure. Digestate samples were used as inoculum for concentration-dependent experiments using SMX at various concentrations. The antibiotic concentrations affecting the mixed microbial community in terms of growth and spread of resistant genes (sul1, sul2) were investigated through OD (Optical Density) measures and qPCR assays. Moreover, SMX biodegradation was assessed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The overall results showed that SMX concentrations in the range of those found in the environment did not affect the microbial community growth and did not select for antibiotic-resistant gene (ARG) maintenance or spread. Furthermore, the microorganisms tested were able to degrade SMX in only 24 h. This study confirms the complexity of antibiotic resistance spread in real matrices where different microorganisms coexist and suggests that antibiotic biodegradation needs to be included for fully understanding the resistance phenomena among bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: intI1; sul1; sul2; antibiotic degradation; MSC intI1; sul1; sul2; antibiotic degradation; MSC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rauseo, J.; Barra Caracciolo, A.; Spataro, F.; Visca, A.; Ademollo, N.; Pescatore, T.; Grenni, P.; Patrolecco, L. Effects of Sulfamethoxazole on Growth and Antibiotic Resistance of A Natural Microbial Community. Water 2021, 13, 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091262

AMA Style

Rauseo J, Barra Caracciolo A, Spataro F, Visca A, Ademollo N, Pescatore T, Grenni P, Patrolecco L. Effects of Sulfamethoxazole on Growth and Antibiotic Resistance of A Natural Microbial Community. Water. 2021; 13(9):1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rauseo, Jasmin, Anna Barra Caracciolo, Francesca Spataro, Andrea Visca, Nicoletta Ademollo, Tanita Pescatore, Paola Grenni, and Luisa Patrolecco. 2021. "Effects of Sulfamethoxazole on Growth and Antibiotic Resistance of A Natural Microbial Community" Water 13, no. 9: 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091262

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