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Article

Diclofenac Toxicity Abatement in Wastewater with Solar Disinfection: A Study in the Rural Area of Brazil’s Central−West Region

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Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Dom Bosco Catholic University, Avenida Tamandaré, 6000, Campo Grande, MS 79117-900, Brazil
2
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Novo Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
3
Agrosantech-Agrotechnology-Oriented Sustainable Sanitation Research Group, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Dom Bosco Catholic University, Avenida Tamandaré, 6000, Campo Grande, MS 79117-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jorge Rodríguez-Chueca
Water 2021, 13(8), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081043
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 2 April 2021 / Accepted: 7 April 2021 / Published: 10 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Management: New Paradigms for Water Treatment and Reuse)
Domestic wastewater has been targeted for the presence of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics, of which diclofenac is one of the most frequently detected. Many studies have focused on the removal of these emerging pollutants. However, the legislation has focused on toxicity monitoring. In search of simplified solutions for rural areas, and to guarantee the safe reuse of effluent in agriculture, this study evaluated the efficiency of a decentralized solar disinfection (SODIS) system regarding the reduction of ecotoxicity, phytotoxicity, and pathogens in domestic wastewater after adding diclofenac potassium. For this purpose, the bioindicators Artemia sp., Allium cepa L. and Lactuca sativa were used, after 1, 2, and 3 h of exposure to solar radiation. After 3 h of exposure to solar radiation, toxicity was reduced and root growth inhibition was noted, which indicates low effluent toxicity after treatment by the SODIS system. It was achieved a reduction of 3 and 2 log units in the concentration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: domestic sewage; ecotoxicity; phytotoxicity; emerging contaminants; septic tank; solar disinfection domestic sewage; ecotoxicity; phytotoxicity; emerging contaminants; septic tank; solar disinfection
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MDPI and ACS Style

dos Santos, N.S.; Marquiza, L.F.; Calheiros, C.S.C.; Cavalheri, P.S.; Machado, B.S.; Cavazzana, G.H.; Filho, F.J.C.M. Diclofenac Toxicity Abatement in Wastewater with Solar Disinfection: A Study in the Rural Area of Brazil’s Central−West Region. Water 2021, 13, 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081043

AMA Style

dos Santos NS, Marquiza LF, Calheiros CSC, Cavalheri PS, Machado BS, Cavazzana GH, Filho FJCM. Diclofenac Toxicity Abatement in Wastewater with Solar Disinfection: A Study in the Rural Area of Brazil’s Central−West Region. Water. 2021; 13(8):1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081043

Chicago/Turabian Style

dos Santos, Nathália S.; Marquiza, Laura F.; Calheiros, Cristina S.C.; Cavalheri, Priscila S.; Machado, Beatriz S.; Cavazzana, Guilherme H.; Filho, Fernando J.C.M. 2021. "Diclofenac Toxicity Abatement in Wastewater with Solar Disinfection: A Study in the Rural Area of Brazil’s Central−West Region" Water 13, no. 8: 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081043

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