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Open AccessReview

Canadian Continental-Scale Hydrology under a Changing Climate: A Review

1
Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
Department of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environment, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Barrie R. Bonsal
Water 2021, 13(7), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070906
Received: 9 March 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 25 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Past and Future Trends and Variability in Hydro-Climatic Processes)
Canada, like other high latitude cold regions on Earth, is experiencing some of the most accelerated and intense warming resulting from global climate change. In the northern regions, Arctic amplification has resulted in warming two to three times greater than global mean temperature trends. Unprecedented warming is matched by intensification of wet and dry regions and hydroclimatic cycles, which is altering the spatial and seasonal distribution of surface waters in Canada. Diagnosing and tracking hydrologic change across Canada requires the implementation of continental-scale prediction models owing the size of Canada’s drainage basins, their distribution across multiple eco- and climatic zones, and the scarcity and paucity of observational networks. This review examines the current state of continental-scale climate change across Canada and the anticipated impacts to freshwater availability, including the role of anthropogenic regulation. The review focuses on continental and regional-scale prediction that underpins operational design and long-term resource planning and management in Canada. While there are significant process-based changes being experienced within Canadian catchments that are equally—if not more so—critical for community water availability, the focus of this review is on the cumulative effects of climate change and anthropogenic regulation for the Canadian freshwater supply. View Full-Text
Keywords: Canada; freshwater discharge; water supply; runoff; streamflow; climate change; regulation; arctic amplification Canada; freshwater discharge; water supply; runoff; streamflow; climate change; regulation; arctic amplification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stadnyk, T.A.; Déry, S.J. Canadian Continental-Scale Hydrology under a Changing Climate: A Review. Water 2021, 13, 906. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070906

AMA Style

Stadnyk TA, Déry SJ. Canadian Continental-Scale Hydrology under a Changing Climate: A Review. Water. 2021; 13(7):906. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070906

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stadnyk, Tricia A.; Déry, Stephen J. 2021. "Canadian Continental-Scale Hydrology under a Changing Climate: A Review" Water 13, no. 7: 906. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070906

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