To explore the purification effect of biochar-constructed wetlands on rural domestic sewage, six types of biochar-constructed wetlands were constructed for experiments. Under different hydraulic conditions, the removal effects of each biochar-constructed wetland on chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in sewage were analyzed. The results showed that the removal rates of the four types of pollutants in each biochar-constructed wetland first increased and then decreased with the increase in hydraulic retention time, and the optimal hydraulic retention time range was 36–48 h. The highest removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in the wetland were 97.34 ± 0.84%, 95.44 ± 1.29%, 98.95 ± 0.52%, and 97.78 ± 0.91%, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of each biochar-constructed wetland increased first, then decreased with the increase in hydraulic load, and the optimal hydraulic load was 10 cm/d. The removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus of each biochar-constructed wetland gradually weakened with the increase in hydraulic load, and the optimal hydraulic load range was between 5 and 10 cm/d. Under these conditions, the highest removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in the wetland were 92.15 ± 2.39%, 98.32 ± 0.48%, 96.69 ± 1.26%, and 92.62 ± 2.92%, respectively. Coconut shell and shell-constructed wetlands with the highest proportion of biochar in the matrix have the best removal effect on pollutants under different hydraulic conditions, and the wastewater purification effect is stronger, indicating that the addition of biochar is helpful for the removal of pollutants in constructed wetlands.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited