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Open AccessArticle

Intestinal Microbial Ecology and Fillet Metal Chemistry of Wild Grey Mullets Reflect the Variability of the Aquatic Environment in a Western Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Santa Giusta, Sardinia, Italy)

1
AGRIS-Sardegna, Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia, Bonassai, 07100 Sassari, Italy
2
Department of Architecture, Design and Urban Planning, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Bergamasco
Water 2021, 13(6), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060879
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
Fish populations play an active role in the maintenance of aquatic ecosystems biodiversity. Their intestinal microbiota and fillet chemistry depend on abiotic and biotic factors of the water environments that they inhabit. The present study investigated the grey mullets’ gut microbiota from a transitional aquatic ecosystem (Santa Giusta Lagoon, Sardinia, Italy) by a multidisciplinary approach which refers the results of (1) gut cultivable microbiota analyses (MA), (2) the trace metal assessment of fish muscle (TM), (3) the physico-chemical water monitoring (PC). MA detected the greatest number of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms in Autumn (mean values 1.3 × 105, 2.4 × 104, 1.1 × 104 cfu g−1, respectively) when the accumulated rain and mean values of nutrients (reactive phosphorous and silica) were the highest. Marine bacteria were more numerous in Summer (mean value 7.4 × 105 cfu g−1) when the highest mean values of water temperature and salinity were registered. The gut bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas spp. (64%), Aeromonas spp. (17%), Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense (10%), Providencia spp. (5%), Enterobacter ludwigii (2%) and Kocuria tytonicola (2%). TM showed that Ca, Na, B and Ni increased their concentrations in Winter while maxima of P, Zn, Cu and Fe were found in muscles of fish sampled in Summer. This study highlighted that the fish intestinal microbiota and metal composition of the fillet reflected the seasonal aquatic environmental variability. View Full-Text
Keywords: grey mullet; fish gut microbiota; transitional ecosystems; nutrients; fillet metals; monitoring grey mullet; fish gut microbiota; transitional ecosystems; nutrients; fillet metals; monitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Floris, R.; Sanna, G.; Satta, C.T.; Piga, C.; Sanna, F.; Lugliè, A.; Fois, N. Intestinal Microbial Ecology and Fillet Metal Chemistry of Wild Grey Mullets Reflect the Variability of the Aquatic Environment in a Western Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Santa Giusta, Sardinia, Italy). Water 2021, 13, 879. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060879

AMA Style

Floris R, Sanna G, Satta CT, Piga C, Sanna F, Lugliè A, Fois N. Intestinal Microbial Ecology and Fillet Metal Chemistry of Wild Grey Mullets Reflect the Variability of the Aquatic Environment in a Western Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Santa Giusta, Sardinia, Italy). Water. 2021; 13(6):879. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060879

Chicago/Turabian Style

Floris, Rosanna; Sanna, Gabriele; Satta, Cecilia T.; Piga, Carlo; Sanna, Francesco; Lugliè, Antonella; Fois, Nicola. 2021. "Intestinal Microbial Ecology and Fillet Metal Chemistry of Wild Grey Mullets Reflect the Variability of the Aquatic Environment in a Western Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Santa Giusta, Sardinia, Italy)" Water 13, no. 6: 879. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060879

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