Next Article in Journal
Continental vs. Global Niche-Based Modelling of Freshwater Species’ Distributions: How Big Are the Differences in the Estimated Climate Change Effects?
Previous Article in Journal
The “Problem” of New Orleans and Diminishing Sustainability of Mississippi River Management—Future Options
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influences of Dimethyl Phthalate on Bacterial Community and Enzyme Activity in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland
Article

Biomat Resilience to Desiccation and Flooding Within a Shallow, Unit Process Open Water Engineered Wetland

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
2
Re-Inventing the Nation’s Urban Water Infrastructure (ReNUWIt) NSF Engineering Research Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
3
Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY 10997, USA
4
Hydrologic Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pedro N. Carvalho and Víctor Matamoros
Water 2021, 13(6), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060815
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
Projections of increased hydrological extremes due to climate change heighten the need to understand and improve the resilience of our water infrastructure. While constructed natural treatment analogs, such as raingardens, wetlands, and aquifer recharge, hold intuitive promise for variable flows, the impacts of disruption on water treatment processes and outcomes are not well understood and limit widespread adoption. To this end, we studied the impact of desiccation and flooding extremes on demonstration-scale shallow, unit process open water (UPOW) wetlands designed for water treatment. System resilience was evaluated as a function of physical characteristics, nitrate removal, photosynthetic activity, and microbial ecology. Rehydrated biomat that had been naturally desiccated re-established nitrate removal consistent with undisrupted biomat in less than a week; however, a pulse of organic carbon and nitrogen accompanied the initial rehydration phase. Conversely, sediment intrusion due to flooding had a negative impact on the biomat’s photosynthetic activity and decreased nitrate attenuation rates by nearly 50%. Based upon past mechanistic inferences, attenuation potential for trace organics is anticipated to follow similar trends as nitrate removal. While the microbial community was significantly altered in both extremes, our results collectively suggest that UPOW wetlands have potential for seasonal or intermittent use due to their promise of rapid re-establishment after rehydration. Flooding extremes and associated sediment intrusion provide a greater barrier to system resilience indicating a need for proactive designs to prevent this outcome; however, residual treatment potential after disruption could provide operators with time to triage and manage the system should a flood occur again. View Full-Text
Keywords: engineered wetlands; disruption; resilience; nitrate; microbial resistance engineered wetlands; disruption; resilience; nitrate; microbial resistance
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Brady, A.R.; Vega, M.A.; Riddle, K.N.; Peel, H.F.; Lundeen, E.J.; Siegmund, J.G.; Sharp, J.O. Biomat Resilience to Desiccation and Flooding Within a Shallow, Unit Process Open Water Engineered Wetland. Water 2021, 13, 815. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060815

AMA Style

Brady AR, Vega MA, Riddle KN, Peel HF, Lundeen EJ, Siegmund JG, Sharp JO. Biomat Resilience to Desiccation and Flooding Within a Shallow, Unit Process Open Water Engineered Wetland. Water. 2021; 13(6):815. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060815

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brady, Adam R., Michael A. Vega, Kimberly N. Riddle, Henry F. Peel, Evelyn J. Lundeen, Julia G. Siegmund, and Jonathan O. Sharp 2021. "Biomat Resilience to Desiccation and Flooding Within a Shallow, Unit Process Open Water Engineered Wetland" Water 13, no. 6: 815. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060815

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop