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Open AccessArticle

Influences of Dimethyl Phthalate on Bacterial Community and Enzyme Activity in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland

1
Department of Resources & Environmental Engineering, Anshun University, Anshun 561000, China
2
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment, School of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
4
College of Natural Resource & Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pedro N. Carvalho and Víctor Matamoros
Water 2021, 13(6), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060788
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 10 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 14 March 2021
Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), belonging to the family of Phthalate esters (PAEs), is a plasticizer and has been widely used in the world for many years. Nowadays, it has become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and is listed as an environmental priority pollutant by China’s Environmental Monitoring Center. The purpose of this study is to estimate the responses of the bacterial community and enzyme activity to DMP contamination in three vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW), namely the constructed wetland A (planted with Pennisetum sinese Roxb), constructed wetland B (planted with Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), and constructed wetland C (unplanted), respectively. The results showed that the relative percentages of some genera associated with nitrogen metabolism and the function of degrading aromatic hydrocarbons were increased by DMP contamination, such as Dechloromonas agitata, Pleomorphomonas sp., Denitratisoma oestradiolicum, Plasticicumulans lactativorans, Novosphingobium sp., Alicycliphilus denitrificans, and Thauera sp. Meanwhile, principal coordinate analysis (PCA) analysis showed that the addition of DMP divided 12 samples into two groups as followed: one was the DMP group containing a-1, a-2, b-1, b-2, c-1 and c-2 while the other was no DMP group including A-1, A-2, B-1, B-2, C-1 and C-2. It indicated that DMP was the main reason for this change. In addition, by monitoring the activity of substrate enzymes, the activity of urease, phosphatase, catalase, and invertase in the wetlands before and after the experiment, these were significantly higher in the upper layer than in the lower layer and maintained high activity. Ultimately, the average influent concentration of DMP in three VFCWs was 8.12 mg/L and the average removal efficiency of the effluent was over 90%. Our results suggested that DMP was an important factor affecting the microbial community structure of wetland and the upper layer of the VFCW was the main site for the degradation of DMP. VFCW has great potential for the removal of the high concentration of DMP and it can be a good choice for the treatment of PAEs. View Full-Text
Keywords: dimethyl phthalate (DMP); bacterial community; enzyme activity; vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) dimethyl phthalate (DMP); bacterial community; enzyme activity; vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, Q.; Lu, S.; Yuan, T.; Zhang, F.; Wang, L.; Wang, P.; Wen, X.; Cui, L. Influences of Dimethyl Phthalate on Bacterial Community and Enzyme Activity in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland. Water 2021, 13, 788. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060788

AMA Style

Xu Q, Lu S, Yuan T, Zhang F, Wang L, Wang P, Wen X, Cui L. Influences of Dimethyl Phthalate on Bacterial Community and Enzyme Activity in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland. Water. 2021; 13(6):788. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060788

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, QiaoLing; Lu, ShaoYong; Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Li; Wang, Ping; Wen, XueYuan; Cui, LiHua. 2021. "Influences of Dimethyl Phthalate on Bacterial Community and Enzyme Activity in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland" Water 13, no. 6: 788. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060788

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