Next Article in Journal
Water Insecurity in Ontario First Nations: An Exploratory Study on Past Interventions and the Need for Indigenous Water Governance
Next Article in Special Issue
Influences of Dimethyl Phthalate on Bacterial Community and Enzyme Activity in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Prospective Climate Change Scenarios upon Hydropower Potential of Ethiopia in GERD and GIBE Dams
Previous Article in Special Issue
Resilience of Micropollutant and Biological Effect Removal in an Aerated Horizontal Flow Treatment Wetland
Article

Alkylphenols and Chlorophenols Remediation in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands: Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Response

1
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
2
Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
3
Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos S. Akratos
Water 2021, 13(5), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050715
Received: 23 January 2021 / Revised: 19 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 6 March 2021
This study aims to investigate the effect of two different groups of phenolic compounds (the alkylphenols nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), and the chlorophenol pentachlorophenol (PCP)) on constructed wetlands (CWs) performance, including on organic matter, nutrients and contaminants removal efficiency, and on microbial community structure in the plant bed substrate. CWs were assembled at lab scale simulating a vertical flow configuration and irrigated along eight weeks with Ribeira de Joane (an urban stream) water not doped (control) or doped with a mixture of NP and OP or with PCP (at a 100 μg·L−1 concentration each). The presence of the phenolic contaminants did not interfere in the removal of organic matter or nutrients in CWs in the long term. Removals of NP and OP were >99%, whereas PCP removals varied between 87% and 98%, mainly due to biodegradation. Microbial richness, diversity and dominance in CWs substrate were generally not affected by phenolic compounds, with only PCP decreasing diversity. Microbial community structure, however, showed that there was an adaptation of the microbial community to the presence of each contaminant, with several specialist genera being enriched following exposure. The three more abundant specialist genera were Methylotenera and Methylophilus (methylophilaceae family) and Hyphomicrobium (hyphomicrobiaceae family) when the systems were exposed to a mixture of NP and OP. When exposed to PCP, the three more abundant genera were Denitromonas (Rhodocyclaceae family), Xenococcus_PCC_7305 (Xenococcaceae family) and Rhodocyclaceae_uncultured (Rhodocyclaceae family). To increase CWs efficiency in the elimination of phenolic compounds, namely PCP which was not totally removed, strategies to stimulate (namely biostimulation) or increase (namely bioaugmentation) the presence of these bacteria should be explore. This study clearly shows the potential of vertical flow CWs for the removal of phenolic compounds, a still little explored subject, contributing to promote the use of CWs as nature-based solutions to remediate water contaminated with different families of persistent and/or emergent contaminants. View Full-Text
Keywords: vertical flow constructed wetlands; nonylphenol; octylphenol; pentachlorophenol; Phragmites australis; bacterial community vertical flow constructed wetlands; nonylphenol; octylphenol; pentachlorophenol; Phragmites australis; bacterial community
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Montenegro, I.P.F.M.; Mucha, A.P.; Tomasino, M.P.; Gomes, C.R.; Almeida, C.M.R. Alkylphenols and Chlorophenols Remediation in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands: Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Response. Water 2021, 13, 715. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050715

AMA Style

Montenegro IPFM, Mucha AP, Tomasino MP, Gomes CR, Almeida CMR. Alkylphenols and Chlorophenols Remediation in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands: Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Response. Water. 2021; 13(5):715. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050715

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montenegro, Inês P.F.M., Ana P. Mucha, Maria P. Tomasino, Carlos R. Gomes, and Cristina M.R. Almeida 2021. "Alkylphenols and Chlorophenols Remediation in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands: Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Response" Water 13, no. 5: 715. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050715

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop