Next Article in Journal
Modulation of Typhoon-Induced Sea Surface Cooling by Preexisting Eddies in the South China Sea
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluating Traditional Empirical Models and BPNN Models in Monitoring the Concentrations of Chlorophyll-A and Total Suspended Particulate of Eutrophic and Turbid Waters
Article

Modeling the Effect of Different Forest Types on Water Balance in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China, with CoupModel

1
Ningxia Soil and Water Conservation Monitoring Station, Yinchuan 750021, China
2
College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
3
Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Dunkerley
Water 2021, 13(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050654
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
Precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were measured, whereas interception, transpiration, evaporation, deep percolation, and soil water recharge were estimated in three plots, including oak (Lithocarpus glaber), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) forestlands, and maize (Zea mays) farmland in the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. A physical process-based model (CoupModel) was set up with climatic measurements as input and was calibrated with throughfall and vertical frequency domain reflectometry measurements from January 2018 to December 2019. Simulated values of soil moisture were fairly consistent with measured ones, with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.73–0.91. Evapotranspiration was the main output of water balance, with a percentage of up to 61%, and such output was ranked as follows: oak forest (720 mm/y) > Chinese fir forest (700 mm/y) > maize farmland (600 mm/y). Afforestation influenced water balance, and water recharge was generally less significant in oak forestland than in Chinese fir forestland. Annual simulated deep percolation decreased by 60 mm for oak and 47 mm for Chinese fir compared with that for farmland (452 mm/y) and even more significantly in wet years. This decrease was mainly attributed to increased interception (122–159 mm/y) and transpiration (49–84 mm/y) after afforestation. Simulations indicated that vegetation species significantly influenced the magnitude of water balance components, calling for further attention to the selection of regrown tree species in the planning for afforestation projects, particularly for such projects that aim to improve the quantity of water infiltrating groundwater. Soil and water conservation measures should also be applied scientifically when converting farmland to forest in this area, particularly in the oak forest stand. View Full-Text
Keywords: CoupModel; water balance; afforestation; Three Gorges Reservoir area; oak; Chinese fir; maize CoupModel; water balance; afforestation; Three Gorges Reservoir area; oak; Chinese fir; maize
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Z.; Hou, F.; Cheng, J.; Zhang, Y. Modeling the Effect of Different Forest Types on Water Balance in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China, with CoupModel. Water 2021, 13, 654. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050654

AMA Style

Yang Z, Hou F, Cheng J, Zhang Y. Modeling the Effect of Different Forest Types on Water Balance in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China, with CoupModel. Water. 2021; 13(5):654. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050654

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Zhi, Fang Hou, Jinhua Cheng, and Youyan Zhang. 2021. "Modeling the Effect of Different Forest Types on Water Balance in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China, with CoupModel" Water 13, no. 5: 654. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050654

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop