Urban flood-related issues are substantial in China, arising from rapid construction of megacities over decades with insufficient flood control, all being made worse by climate change. Since Sponge City (SC) options are primarily effective at maintaining the water balance at the surface, flooding continues. In response, the One Water concept is used to demonstrate the need to respond to dimensions beyond SC and shown herein to have potential to reduce the impacts of major storms (e.g., suppress 100-year flooding to a 25-year flooding equivalent). However, climate change causes more intense storms, indicating the intensity of the 100-year storm will increase by ~0.23% annually over the next 70 years. Hence, given sufficient SC options, the 100-year storms may only be effectively reduced to a 50-year storm, at best by SC options. “One Water” is utilized as a concept to demonstrate structured thinking about how each dimension of the hydrologic cycle can be employed to consider the degree of interconnection, allowing improved assessment of various components of the hydrologic cycle and SC options. Examples are used to demonstrate how the concept of One Water links the array of components of the hydrologic cycle together, generating a holistic view of urban water resource security.
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