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Open AccessArticle

Framework to Study the Effects of Climate Change on Vulnerability of Ecosystems and Societies: Case Study of Nitrates in Drinking Water in Southern Finland

1
Finnish Environment Institute, Latokartanonkaari 11, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland
2
Natural Resources Institute, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland
3
Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. BOX 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José L. J. Ledesma
Water 2021, 13(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040472
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Catchment Biogeochemical and Hydrological Modelling)
Climate change may alter the services ecosystems provide by changing ecosystem functioning. As ecosystems can also resist environmental perturbations, it is crucial to consider the different processes that influence resilience. Our case study considered increased NO3 concentration in drinking water due to the climate change. We analyzed changes in ecosystem services connected to water purification at a catchment scale in southern Finland. We combined climate change scenarios with process-based forest growth (PREBAS) and eco-hydrological (PERSiST and INCA) models. We improved traditional model calibration by timing of forest phenology and snow-covered period from network of cameras and satellite data. We upscaled the combined modelling results with scenarios of population growth to form vulnerability maps. The boreal ecosystems seemed to be strongly buffered against NO3- leaching by increase in evapotranspiration and vegetation NO3- uptake. Societal vulnerability varied greatly between scenarios and municipalities. The most vulnerable were agricultural areas on permeable soil types. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change resilience; catchment scale; modelling framework; nitrate; vulnerability climate change resilience; catchment scale; modelling framework; nitrate; vulnerability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rankinen, K.; Holmberg, M.; Peltoniemi, M.; Akujärvi, A.; Anttila, K.; Manninen, T.; Markkanen, T. Framework to Study the Effects of Climate Change on Vulnerability of Ecosystems and Societies: Case Study of Nitrates in Drinking Water in Southern Finland. Water 2021, 13, 472. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040472

AMA Style

Rankinen K, Holmberg M, Peltoniemi M, Akujärvi A, Anttila K, Manninen T, Markkanen T. Framework to Study the Effects of Climate Change on Vulnerability of Ecosystems and Societies: Case Study of Nitrates in Drinking Water in Southern Finland. Water. 2021; 13(4):472. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040472

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rankinen, Katri; Holmberg, Maria; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Akujärvi, Anu; Anttila, Kati; Manninen, Terhikki; Markkanen, Tiina. 2021. "Framework to Study the Effects of Climate Change on Vulnerability of Ecosystems and Societies: Case Study of Nitrates in Drinking Water in Southern Finland" Water 13, no. 4: 472. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040472

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