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Open AccessArticle

Campus Study of the Impact of Ultra-Low Flush Toilets on Sewerage Networks and Water Usage

1
Centre for Water Systems, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
2
School of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
3
Propelair Limited Unit 1, West Point, Durham Rd., Laindon, Basildon SS15 6PH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco De Paola
Water 2021, 13(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040419
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 5 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Demand Management)
Water demand management often focuses on quantifying the benefits of water efficiency rather than the potential impact of reduced flows on the sewer network. This study assessed the impact of a high-density deployment of ultra-low flush toilets (ULFT). A pre-installation washroom survey was carried out in July 2018. Water demand and sewer network condition were assessed ahead of the installation of 119 ULFTs and a real-time monitoring system across seven buildings on the University of Exeter campus. ULFTs were flushed 257,925 times in 177 days saving an estimated 2287 m3 per annum (compared to traditional 6 litre WCs). The annual cost saving of this reduction is approximately £12,580/annum, assuming a volumetric cost of £5.50/m3 of water. Mean discharge to the sewer network reduced by 6 m3/day. In the six-month period, 95 maintenance issues were reported, equating to 1 in 2700 flushes (0.037%). However, the frequency of incidents decreased after an initial commissioning period. There is no evidence, from blockage reports or photographs of manhole flow conditions, that the risk of blockage in the sewer network increased as a result of the ULFT installation programme. View Full-Text
Keywords: sewer network; ultra-low flush toilets; water demand management sewer network; ultra-low flush toilets; water demand management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Melville-Shreeve, P.; Cotterill, S.; Newman, A.; Butler, D. Campus Study of the Impact of Ultra-Low Flush Toilets on Sewerage Networks and Water Usage. Water 2021, 13, 419. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040419

AMA Style

Melville-Shreeve P, Cotterill S, Newman A, Butler D. Campus Study of the Impact of Ultra-Low Flush Toilets on Sewerage Networks and Water Usage. Water. 2021; 13(4):419. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040419

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melville-Shreeve, Peter; Cotterill, Sarah; Newman, Alex; Butler, David. 2021. "Campus Study of the Impact of Ultra-Low Flush Toilets on Sewerage Networks and Water Usage" Water 13, no. 4: 419. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040419

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