Next Article in Journal
Urbanization under a Changing Climate–Impacts on Hydrology
Next Article in Special Issue
Finding Nano: Challenges Involved in Monitoring the Presence and Fate of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Aquatic Environments
Previous Article in Journal
Enhancement of Anaerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludge by Conductive Materials under High Volatile Fatty Acids-to-Alkalinity Ratios
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Novel Method for Determination of the Natural Toxin Ptaquiloside in Ground and Drinking Water
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Occurrence and Sources of Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Sewage Treatment Plants and the Han River, Korea

1
Department of Water Environment Research, Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment, Seoul 13818, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miren López de Alda Villaizán
Water 2021, 13(4), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040392
Received: 28 December 2020 / Revised: 23 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in Water)
Levels of synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) and various personal care products (PCPs) were measured in the Han River and its tributaries in Seoul, Korea. The most abundant SMF in all river and PCP samples was 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta(g)sochromene (HHCB), followed by 1-(3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-6,7-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (AHTN), musk ketone (MK), and 1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-2,5,6,7-tetrahydroinden-4-one (DPMI). The most abundant SMF in both PCPs and the Han River samples was HHCB, followed by AHTN. Moving from upstream to downstream in the Han River, the median SMF concentration was 6.756, 2.945, 0.304, and 0.141 μg/L in the sewage treatment plant (STP) influents, effluents, tributaries, and mainstream, respectively, implying that effective SMF removal was achieved during the sewage treatment process, followed by dilution in the receiving water. Four STPs using advanced biological treatment processes had removal efficiencies of 58.5%, 56.8%, and 38.1% for HHCB, AHTN, and MK, respectively. The highest SMF concentrations in the tributaries were observed at locations close to the STPs. Our study confirmed that the main source of SMFs in the receiving water were sewage effluents containing untreated SMFs, which largely originate from household PCPs, especially hair care products (e.g., shampoo) and perfumes. View Full-Text
Keywords: AHTN; HHCB; musk ketone; personal care product; sewage treatment plant; synthetic musk fragrance AHTN; HHCB; musk ketone; personal care product; sewage treatment plant; synthetic musk fragrance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hong, J.-H.; Lee, J.-Y.; Ha, H.-J.; Lee, J.-H.; Oh, S.-R.; Lee, Y.-M.; Lee, M.-Y.; Zoh, K.-D. Occurrence and Sources of Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Sewage Treatment Plants and the Han River, Korea. Water 2021, 13, 392. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040392

AMA Style

Hong J-H, Lee J-Y, Ha H-J, Lee J-H, Oh S-R, Lee Y-M, Lee M-Y, Zoh K-D. Occurrence and Sources of Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Sewage Treatment Plants and the Han River, Korea. Water. 2021; 13(4):392. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040392

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hong, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jun-Yeon; Ha, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jin-Hyo; Oh, Seok-Ryul; Lee, Young-Min; Lee, Mok-Young; Zoh, Kyung-Duk. 2021. "Occurrence and Sources of Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Sewage Treatment Plants and the Han River, Korea" Water 13, no. 4: 392. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040392

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop