Next Article in Journal
Evolution of Flood Regulation Capacity for a Large Shallow Retention Lake: Characterization, Mechanism, and Impacts
Previous Article in Journal
Quantile Mixture and Probability Mixture Models in a Multi-Model Approach to Flood Frequency Analysis
Open AccessArticle

A Novel Method for Determination of the Natural Toxin Ptaquiloside in Ground and Drinking Water

1
Greater Copenhagen Utility HOFOR, Parkstien 10, 2450 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark
3
Department of Technology, University College Copenhagen, Sigurdsgade 26, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2852; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102852
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 4 October 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in Water)
Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a carcinogenic compound naturally occurring in bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum). It is highly water soluble and prone to leaching from topsoil to surface and groundwaters. Due to possible human exposure via drinking water, PTA is considered as an emerging contaminant. We present a sensitive and robust method for analysis of PTA and its degradation product pterosin B (PtB) in groundwater. The method comprises two steps: sample preservation at the field site followed by sample pre-concentration in the laboratory. The preservation step was developed by applying a Plackett–Burman experimental design testing the following variables: water type, pH, filtering, bottle type, storage temperature, transportation conditions and test time. The best sample preservation was obtained by using amber glass bottles, unfiltered solutions buffered at pH 6, transported without ice, stored at 4 °C and analysed within 48 h. The recovery was 94% to 100%. The sample purification step had a pre-concentration factor of 250, and the recovery percentages of the entire method were 85 ± 2 (PTA) and 91 ± 3 (PtB). The limits of detection (LOD) of the full method were 0.001 µg L−1 and 0.0001 µg L−1 for PTA and PtB, respectively. The method enables sensitive monitoring of PTA and PtB in groundwater. Carcinogenic PTA was detected in one groundwater well (0.35 µg L−1). View Full-Text
Keywords: natural toxins; Pteridium; carcinogens; drinking water natural toxins; Pteridium; carcinogens; drinking water
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Skrbic, N.; Pedersen, A.-K.; Christensen, S.C.B.; Hansen, H.C.B.; Rasmussen, L.H. A Novel Method for Determination of the Natural Toxin Ptaquiloside in Ground and Drinking Water. Water 2020, 12, 2852.

AMA Style

Skrbic N, Pedersen A-K, Christensen SCB, Hansen HCB, Rasmussen LH. A Novel Method for Determination of the Natural Toxin Ptaquiloside in Ground and Drinking Water. Water. 2020; 12(10):2852.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skrbic, Natasa; Pedersen, Ann-Katrin; Christensen, Sarah C.B.; Hansen, Hans C.B.; Rasmussen, Lars H. 2020. "A Novel Method for Determination of the Natural Toxin Ptaquiloside in Ground and Drinking Water" Water 12, no. 10: 2852.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop