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Urban Wetlands: A Review on Ecological and Cultural Values

Department of Forest Science, University of Helsinki, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Helsinki Institute of Urban and Regional Studies (Urbaria), 00100 Helsinki, Finland
Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Latokartanonkaari 9, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anne W. M. Ng and Nitin Muttil
Water 2021, 13(22), 3301;
Received: 15 October 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 17 November 2021 / Published: 22 November 2021
Wetlands are a critical part of natural environments that offer a wide range of ecosystem services. In urban areas, wetlands contribute to the livability of cities through improving the water quality, carbon sequestration, providing habitats for wildlife species, reducing the effects of urban heat islands, and creating recreation opportunities. However, maintaining wetlands in urban areas faces many challenges, such as the reduction of hydrological functions, changed water regimes due to barriers, contamination by wastewater, habitat loss due to land-use change, and loss of biodiversity due to the entry of alien species. In this article, we review the theoretical background of wetlands in urban areas through the existing studies in the literature. We provide knowledge on urban wetlands and highlight the benefits of these wetlands in urban areas. These benefits include sustainability, biodiversity, urban heat islands, social perception, and recreation values. We also summarize the objectives, methodologies, and findings of the reviewed articles in five tables. In addition, we summarize the critical research gaps addressed in the reviewed articles. Our review study addresses the research gaps by performing a rigorous analysis to identify significant open research challenges, showing the path toward future research in the field. We further discuss and highlight the role of policymakers and stakeholders in preserving wetlands and finally present our conclusions. View Full-Text
Keywords: wetland; urban wetland; green-blue infrastructure; sustainability; ecosystem services wetland; urban wetland; green-blue infrastructure; sustainability; ecosystem services
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alikhani, S.; Nummi, P.; Ojala, A. Urban Wetlands: A Review on Ecological and Cultural Values. Water 2021, 13, 3301.

AMA Style

Alikhani S, Nummi P, Ojala A. Urban Wetlands: A Review on Ecological and Cultural Values. Water. 2021; 13(22):3301.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alikhani, Somayeh, Petri Nummi, and Anne Ojala. 2021. "Urban Wetlands: A Review on Ecological and Cultural Values" Water 13, no. 22: 3301.

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