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Development and Assessment of a New Framework for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Control

Research Center for Environment, Ecology Strategic Planning and Regional Development, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100029, China
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Academic Editors: Lei Chen, Hui Xie, Lei Wu and Liang Zhang
Water 2021, 13(22), 3156; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223156
Received: 12 August 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 9 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-Source and Diffuse Water Pollution)
The transport of agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants in water pathways is affected by various factors such as precipitation, terrain, soil erosion, surface and subsurface flows, soil texture, land management, and vegetation coverage. In this study, based on the transmission mechanism of NPS pollutants, we constructed a five-factor model for predicting the path-through rate of NPS pollutants. The five indices of the hydrological processes, namely the precipitation index (α), terrain index (β), runoff index (TI), subsurface runoff index (LI), and buffer strip retention index (RI), are integrated with the pollution source data, including the rural living, livestock and farmland data, obtained from the national pollution source census. The proposed model was applied to the headwater of the Miyun Reservoir watershed for identifying the areas with high path-through rates of agricultural NPS pollutants. The results demonstrated the following. (1) The simulation accuracy of the model is acceptable in mesoscale watersheds. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) agriculture loads were determined as 705.11 t and 3.16 t in 2014, with the relative errors of the simulations being 19.62% and 24.45%, respectively. (2) From the spatial distribution of the agricultural NPS, the TN and TP resource loads were mainly distributed among the upstream of Dage and downstream of Taishitun, as well as the towns of Bakshiying and Gaoling. The major source of TN was found to be farmland, accounting for 47.6%, followed by livestock, accounting for 37.4%. However, the path-through rates of TP were different from those of TN; rural living was the main TP source (65%). (3) The path-through rates of agricultural NPS were the highest for the towns of Wudaoying, Dage, Tuchengzi, Anchungoumen, and Huodoushan, where the path-through rate of TN ranged from 0.17 to 0.26. As for TP, it was highest in Wudaoying, Kulongshan, Dage, and Tuchengzi, with values ranging from 0.012 to 0.019. (4) A comprehensive analysis of the distribution of the NPS pollution load and the path-through rate revealed the towns of Dage, Wudaoying, and Tuchengzi as the critical source areas of agricultural NPS pollutants. Therefore, these towns should be seriously considered for effective watershed management. In addition, compared with field monitoring, the export coefficient model, and the physical-based model, the proposed five-factor model, which is based on the path-through rate and the mechanism of agricultural NPS pollutant transfer, cannot only obtain the spatial distribution characteristics of the path-through rate on a field scale but also be applicable to large-scale watersheds for estimating the path-through rates of NPS pollutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonpoint source pollution; path-through rate; pollution load; hydrological process nonpoint source pollution; path-through rate; pollution load; hydrological process
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, L.; Geng, R. Development and Assessment of a New Framework for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Control. Water 2021, 13, 3156. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223156

AMA Style

Zhou L, Geng R. Development and Assessment of a New Framework for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Control. Water. 2021; 13(22):3156. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223156

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Lili, and Runzhe Geng. 2021. "Development and Assessment of a New Framework for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Control" Water 13, no. 22: 3156. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223156

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