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Article

Nitrogen Transport/Deposition from Paddy Ecosystem and Potential Pollution Risk Period in Southwest China

by 1,2,†, 1,†, 1,*, 3, 4, 1 and 1
1
Key Laboratory of Nonpoint Source Pollution Control, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
2
Institute of Agricultural Environment and Resources, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650201, China
3
Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M Agrilife Research, Texas A&M University, Temple, TX 76502, USA
4
School of Environment and Sustainability, Global Institute for Water Security, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Per-Erik Mellander
Water 2022, 14(4), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040539
Received: 28 December 2021 / Revised: 4 February 2022 / Accepted: 8 February 2022 / Published: 11 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-Source and Diffuse Water Pollution)
Nitrogen (N) losses through runoff from cropland and atmospheric deposition contributed by agricultural NH3 volatilization are important contributors to lake eutrophication and receive wide attention. Studies on the N runoff and atmospheric N deposition from the paddy ecosystem and how the agriculture-derived N deposition was related to NH3 volatilization were conducted in the paddy ecosystem in the Erhai Lake Watershed in southwest China. The critical period (CP) with a relatively high total N (TN) and NH4+-N deposition occurred in the fertilization period and continued one week after the completion of fertilizer application, and the CP period for N loss through surface runoff was one week longer than that for deposition. Especially, the mean depositions of NH4+-N in the CP period were substantially higher than those in the subsequent period (p < 0.01). Moreover, agriculture-derived NH4+ contributed more than 54% of the total NH4+-N deposition in the CP period, being positively related to NH3 volatilization from cropland soil (p < 0.05). The N concentrations were higher in the outlet water of ditches and runoff in May than in other months due to fertilization and irrigation. Therefore, to reduce the agricultural N losses and improve lake water quality, it is important to both reduce agricultural NH4+-N deposition from NH3 volatilization and intercept water flow from the paddy fields into drainage ditches during the CP. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonpoint source pollution; critical period; nitrogen deposition; NH3 emissions; surface runoff; paddy field nonpoint source pollution; critical period; nitrogen deposition; NH3 emissions; surface runoff; paddy field
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, S.; Yan, T.; Zhai, L.; Yen, H.; Liu, J.; Li, W.; Liu, H. Nitrogen Transport/Deposition from Paddy Ecosystem and Potential Pollution Risk Period in Southwest China. Water 2022, 14, 539. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040539

AMA Style

Guo S, Yan T, Zhai L, Yen H, Liu J, Li W, Liu H. Nitrogen Transport/Deposition from Paddy Ecosystem and Potential Pollution Risk Period in Southwest China. Water. 2022; 14(4):539. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Shufang, Tiezhu Yan, Limei Zhai, Haw Yen, Jian Liu, Wenchao Li, and Hongbin Liu. 2022. "Nitrogen Transport/Deposition from Paddy Ecosystem and Potential Pollution Risk Period in Southwest China" Water 14, no. 4: 539. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040539

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