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Article

Structure-Based Long-Term Biodegradation of the Azo Dye: Insights from the Bacterial Community Succession and Efficiency Comparison

1
School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021, China
2
School of Ecology and Environment, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Chang’an District, Xi’an 710129, China
3
Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
4
Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
5
Environmental Engineering and Management Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ignacio de Godos
Water 2021, 13(21), 3017; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213017
Received: 11 August 2021 / Revised: 22 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Water Management Solutions)
In this study, microbial community dynamics were explored during biological degradation of azo dyes with different chemical structures. The effect of the different molecular structures of the azo dyes was also assessed against the simultaneous removal of color and the bacterial community. Winogradsky columns were inoculated with dewatered sludge and separately fed with six different azo dyes to conduct the sludge acclimatization process, and nine bacterial decolorizing strains were isolated and identified. The decolorization and biodegradation performances of the acclimated system and isolated strains were also determined. Results showed that the bacterial isolates involved in decolorization and the degradation of the azo dyes were mainly associated with the azo dye structure. After 24 h acclimatization at room temperature without specific illumination, immediate decolorization of methyl red (89%) and methyl orange (78%) was observed, due to their simple structure compared to tartrazine (73%). However, after 8 days of acclimatization, methyl red was easily decolorized up to 99%, and about 87% decolorization was observed for orange G (87%), due to its complex chemical structure. Higher degrees of degradation and decolorization were achieved with Pseudomonas geniculate strain Ka38 (Proteobacteria), Bacillus cereus strain 1FFF (Firmicutes) and Klebsiella variicola strain RVEV3 (Proteobacteria) with continuous shaking at 30 °C. The azo dyes with benzene rings were found to be easier to decolorize and degrade with similar microbial communities. Moreover, it seems that the chemical structures of the azo dyes, in a sense, drove the divergent succession of the bacterial community while reducing the diversity. This study gives a deep insight into the feasible structure-based artificial manipulation of bacterial communities and offers theoretical guidance for decolorizing azo dyes with mixed bacteria cultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: azo dye; decolorization; biodegradation; gene metabarcoding; bacterial community azo dye; decolorization; biodegradation; gene metabarcoding; bacterial community
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, C.; Mahmood, Z.; Siddique, M.S.; Wang, H.; Anqi, H.; Sillanpää, M. Structure-Based Long-Term Biodegradation of the Azo Dye: Insights from the Bacterial Community Succession and Efficiency Comparison. Water 2021, 13, 3017. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213017

AMA Style

Zhu C, Mahmood Z, Siddique MS, Wang H, Anqi H, Sillanpää M. Structure-Based Long-Term Biodegradation of the Azo Dye: Insights from the Bacterial Community Succession and Efficiency Comparison. Water. 2021; 13(21):3017. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Chao, Zarak Mahmood, Muhammad Saboor Siddique, Heyou Wang, He Anqi, and Mika Sillanpää. 2021. "Structure-Based Long-Term Biodegradation of the Azo Dye: Insights from the Bacterial Community Succession and Efficiency Comparison" Water 13, no. 21: 3017. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213017

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