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Article

Impacts of Climate and Anthropogenic Activities on Streamflow Regimes in the Beiluo River, China

by 1, 1,2,*, 1,2,3,*, 1 and 2,3
1
State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose G. Vasconcelos
Water 2021, 13(20), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202892
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 15 October 2021
Quantitatively assessing the characteristics of river streamflow variation and conducting research on attribution identification are the basis for formulating climate-change response strategies and rational use of water resources. Based on the daily streamflow data of the Zhuangtou Hydrological Station in 1970–2018, this paper analyzes the streamflow changes in the Beiluo River Basin and studies the impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on the streamflow in this basin. A non-parametric Mann–Kendall test and Pettitt’s test were used to determine the trend and detect abrupt changes of streamflow and baseflow. The method based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, as well as the double-mass curve of precipitation–streamflow, was established to evaluate the impact of climate change and non-climate factors on annual streamflow. The results reveal a statistically significant downward trend (p = 0.01) in both annual streamflow and baseflow, with the abrupt point year in 1994 and 1988, respectively. When comparing to a modest declining trend in annual average precipitation, we see that the temperature showed a significant upward trend (p = 0.01), whose abrupt point year was 1996. Under the policy of returning farmland to forest, land-use analysis shows that the area of farmland had decreased by 222.4 km2, of which 31.4% was mainly converted into the forestland. By the end of 2015, the area of forestland had increased by 123.4 km2, which has largely caused streamflow decrease. For the method based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, climate change contributed 43.7% of the annual streamflow change, and human activities (mainly refers to LUCC) contributed 56.3%. For the DMC of precipitation–streamflow, the precipitation contributed 9.4%, and non-precipitation factors (mainly refers to human activities) contributed 90.6%, and human activities played a more vital part in driving streamflow reduction in different decades, with a contribution rate of more than 70%. This study is of great practical significance to the planning, management, development and utilization of water resources in basins. View Full-Text
Keywords: streamflow variation; trend; abrupt point; land use; the Beiluo River streamflow variation; trend; abrupt point; land use; the Beiluo River
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xie, Z.; Mu, X.; Gao, P.; Wu, C.; Qiu, D. Impacts of Climate and Anthropogenic Activities on Streamflow Regimes in the Beiluo River, China. Water 2021, 13, 2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202892

AMA Style

Xie Z, Mu X, Gao P, Wu C, Qiu D. Impacts of Climate and Anthropogenic Activities on Streamflow Regimes in the Beiluo River, China. Water. 2021; 13(20):2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202892

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xie, Zhibo, Xingmin Mu, Peng Gao, Changxue Wu, and Dexun Qiu. 2021. "Impacts of Climate and Anthropogenic Activities on Streamflow Regimes in the Beiluo River, China" Water 13, no. 20: 2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202892

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