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Article

Laboratory and Semi-Pilot Scale Study on the Electrochemical Treatment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids from Ion Exchange Still Bottoms

1
Fraunhofer USA, Inc., Center Midwest, Division for Coatings and Diamond Technologies, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
3
Emerging Compounds Treatment Technologies (ECT2), Portland, ME 04103, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pei Wang
Water 2021, 13(20), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202873
Received: 27 August 2021 / Revised: 25 September 2021 / Accepted: 3 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of PFAS from Water)
The ubiquitous presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment remains a serious environmental concern. In this study, the electrochemical oxidation (EO) of PFAAs from the waste of ion exchange (IX) still bottoms was assessed at the laboratory and semi-pilot scales, using full boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemical cells. Multiple current densities were evaluated at the laboratory scale and the optimum current density was used at the semi-pilot scale. The results at the laboratory scale showed >99% removal of total PFAAs with 50 mA/cm2 after 8 h of treatment. PFAAs treatment at the semi-pilot scale showed 0.8-fold slower pseudo-first-order degradation kinetics for total PFAAs removal compared to at the laboratory scale, and allowed for >94% PFAAs removal. Defluorination values, perchlorate (ClO4) generation, coulombic efficiency (CE), and energy consumption were also assessed for both scales. Overall, the results of this study highlight the benefits of a tandem concentration/destruction (IX/EO) treatment approach and implications for the scalability of EO to treat high concentrations of PFAAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: PFAS; ion exchange; electrochemical oxidation; still bottoms; scale-up PFAS; ion exchange; electrochemical oxidation; still bottoms; scale-up
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maldonado, V.Y.; Becker, M.F.; Nickelsen, M.G.; Witt, S.E. Laboratory and Semi-Pilot Scale Study on the Electrochemical Treatment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids from Ion Exchange Still Bottoms. Water 2021, 13, 2873. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202873

AMA Style

Maldonado VY, Becker MF, Nickelsen MG, Witt SE. Laboratory and Semi-Pilot Scale Study on the Electrochemical Treatment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids from Ion Exchange Still Bottoms. Water. 2021; 13(20):2873. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202873

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maldonado, Vanessa Y., Michael F. Becker, Michael G. Nickelsen, and Suzanne E. Witt. 2021. "Laboratory and Semi-Pilot Scale Study on the Electrochemical Treatment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids from Ion Exchange Still Bottoms" Water 13, no. 20: 2873. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202873

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