This study investigates the variation of wave impact loads with the geometrical configurations of recurve retrofits mounted on the crest of a vertical seawall. Physical model tests were undertaken in a wave flume at the University of Warwick to investigate the effects of the geometrical properties of recurve on the pressure distribution, overall force, and overturning moment at the seawall, subject to both impulsive and non-impulsive waves. Additionally, the wave impact and quasi-static loads on the recurve portion of the retrofitted seawalls are investigated to understand the role of retrofitting on the structural integrity of the vertical seawall. Detailed analysis of laboratory measurements is conducted to understand the effects of overhang length and height of the recurve wall on the wave loading. It is found that the increase in both recurve height and overhang length lead to the increase of horizontal impact force at an average ratio of 1.15 and 1.1 times larger the reference case of a plain vertical wall for the tested configurations. The results also show that the geometrical shape changes in recurve retrofits, increasing the overturning moment enacted by the wave impact force. A relatively significant increase in wave loading (both impact and quasi-static loads) are observed for the higher recurve retrofits, while changes in the overturning moment are limited for the retrofits with longer overhang length. The data generated from the physical modelling measurements presented in this study will be particularly helpful for a range of relevant stakeholders, including coastal engineers, infrastructure designers, and the local authorities in coastal regions. The results of this study can also enable scientists to design and develop robust decision support tools to evaluate the performance of vertical seawalls with recurve retrofitting.
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