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Article

Large-Volume Samplers for Efficient Composite Sampling and Particle Characterization in Sewer Systems

Department of Aquatic Environmental Engineering, Institute for Water and River Basin Management, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Gotthard-Franz-Str. 3, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
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Academic Editor: Francesco De Paola
Water 2021, 13(20), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202831
Received: 7 September 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II)
The assessment of pollution from sewer discharges requires flexible and reliable sampling methods. The characteristics of the sampling system must be known to allow comparison with other studies. Large volume samplers (LVS) are increasingly used for monitoring in sewer systems and surface waters. This article provides a comprehensive description of this widely applicable sampling system, gives insight into its comparability to standard methods, and provides recommendations for researchers and practitioners involved in water quality monitoring and urban water management. Two methods for subsampling from LVS are presented, i.e., collection of homogenized or sedimented samples. Results from a sampling campaign at combined sewer overflows (CSOs) were used to investigate the comparability of both subsampling methods and conventional autosamplers (AS). Event mean concentrations (EMC) of total suspended solids (TSS) derived from homogenized LVS samples and AS pollutographs were comparable. TSS-EMC of homogenized and sedimented LVS samples were also comparable. However, differences were found for particle size distribution and organic matter content. Consequently, sedimented LVS samples, which contained solids masses in the range of 3–70 g, are recommended to be used for particle characterization. The differences between homogenized and sedimented LVS samples, e.g., the quality of homogenization and the stability of samples during sedimentation in LVS, should be further investigated. Based on LVS results, average TSS concentrations of 50–60 mg/L were found for CSOs from centralized treatment facilities in Bavaria. With a median share of 84%, particles <63 µm were the dominant fraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: large-volume sampler; suspended solids; particle analysis; sewer systems; combined sewer overflow large-volume sampler; suspended solids; particle analysis; sewer systems; combined sewer overflow
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nickel, J.P.; Fuchs, S. Large-Volume Samplers for Efficient Composite Sampling and Particle Characterization in Sewer Systems. Water 2021, 13, 2831. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202831

AMA Style

Nickel JP, Fuchs S. Large-Volume Samplers for Efficient Composite Sampling and Particle Characterization in Sewer Systems. Water. 2021; 13(20):2831. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202831

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nickel, Jan P., and Stephan Fuchs. 2021. "Large-Volume Samplers for Efficient Composite Sampling and Particle Characterization in Sewer Systems" Water 13, no. 20: 2831. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202831

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