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Open AccessReview

Flow Resistance in Open Channel Due to Vegetation at Reach Scale: A Review

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Università della Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata, Italy
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Water 2021, 13(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020116
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 December 2020 / Published: 6 January 2021
Vegetation on the banks and flooding areas of watercourses significantly affects energy losses. To take the latter into account, computational models make use of resistance coefficients based on the evaluation of bed and walls roughness besides the resistance to flow offered by vegetation. This paper, after summarizing the classical approaches based on descriptions and pictures, considers the recent advancements related to the analytical methods relative both to rigid and flexible vegetation. In particular, emergent rigid vegetation is first analyzed by focusing on the methods for determining the drag coefficient, then submerged rigid vegetation is analyzed, highlighting briefly the principles on which the different models are based and recalling the comparisons made in the literature. Then, the models used in the case of both emergent and submerged rigid vegetation are highlighted. As to flexible vegetation, the paper reminds first the flow conditions that cause the vegetation to lay on the channel bed, and then the classical resistance laws that were developed for the design of irrigation canals. The most recent developments in the case of submerged and emergent flexible vegetation are then presented. Since turbulence studies should be considered as the basis of flow resistance, even though the path toward practical use is still long, the new developments in the field of 3D numerical methods are briefly reviewed, presently used to assess the characteristics of turbulence and the transport of sediments and pollutants. The use of remote sensing to map riparian vegetation and estimating biomechanical parameters is briefly analyzed. Finally, some applications are presented, aimed at highlighting, in real cases, the influence exerted by vegetation on water depth and maintenance interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: river hydraulics; vegetation; flow resistance; turbulence; numerical methods river hydraulics; vegetation; flow resistance; turbulence; numerical methods
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MDPI and ACS Style

D’Ippolito, A.; Calomino, F.; Alfonsi, G.; Lauria, A. Flow Resistance in Open Channel Due to Vegetation at Reach Scale: A Review. Water 2021, 13, 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020116

AMA Style

D’Ippolito A, Calomino F, Alfonsi G, Lauria A. Flow Resistance in Open Channel Due to Vegetation at Reach Scale: A Review. Water. 2021; 13(2):116. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020116

Chicago/Turabian Style

D’Ippolito, Antonino; Calomino, Francesco; Alfonsi, Giancarlo; Lauria, Agostino. 2021. "Flow Resistance in Open Channel Due to Vegetation at Reach Scale: A Review" Water 13, no. 2: 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020116

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