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Review

Anthropogenic Activities and the Problem of Antibiotic Resistance in Latin America: A Water Issue

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Clinical Laboratory Science Program, Department of Public Health Sciences, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave. HSSN 420, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
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Health Research Institute (INISA), University of Costa Rica, P.O. Box 11501-2060, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11502, Costa Rica
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Biology Department, El Paso Community College, P.O. Box 20500, El Paso, TX 79998, USA
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Biological Sciences Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abasiofiok Mark Ibekwe
Water 2021, 13(19), 2693; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192693
Received: 31 July 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 24 September 2021 / Published: 28 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Antibiotics revolutionized modern medicine and have been an excellent tool to fight infections. However, their overuse and misuse in different human activities such as health care, food production and agriculture has resulted in a global antimicrobial resistance crisis. Some regions such as Latin America present a more complex scenario because of the lack of resources, systematic studies and legislation to control the use of antimicrobials, thus increasing the spread of antibiotic resistance. This review aims to summarize the state of environmental antibiotic resistance in Latin America, focusing on water resources. Three databases were searched to identify publications on antimicrobial resistance and anthropogenic activities in relation to natural and artificial water ecosystems. We found that antibiotic resistant bacteria, mainly against beta lactam antibiotics, have been reported in several Latin American countries, and that resistant bacteria as well as resistant genes can be isolated from a wide variety of aquatic environments, including drinking, surface, irrigation, sea and wastewater. It is urgent to establish policies and regulations for antibiotic use to prevent the increase of multi-drug resistant microorganisms in the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Latin America; antibiotic resistance; antibiotic-resistance genes; human activities; water sources; anthropogenic activities; ESBL Latin America; antibiotic resistance; antibiotic-resistance genes; human activities; water sources; anthropogenic activities; ESBL
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MDPI and ACS Style

Domínguez, D.C.; Chacón, L.M.; Wallace, D. Anthropogenic Activities and the Problem of Antibiotic Resistance in Latin America: A Water Issue. Water 2021, 13, 2693. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192693

AMA Style

Domínguez DC, Chacón LM, Wallace D. Anthropogenic Activities and the Problem of Antibiotic Resistance in Latin America: A Water Issue. Water. 2021; 13(19):2693. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192693

Chicago/Turabian Style

Domínguez, Delfina C., Luz M. Chacón, and D’Janique Wallace. 2021. "Anthropogenic Activities and the Problem of Antibiotic Resistance in Latin America: A Water Issue" Water 13, no. 19: 2693. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192693

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