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Article

Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Ice-Covered Lake in Winter: Effect of Changes in Light, Thermal and Ice Regimes

1
Northern Water Problems Institute, Karelian Research Centre RAS, 185000 Petrozavodsk, Russia
2
Institute of Geology, Karelian Research Centre RAS, 185000 Petrozavodsk, Russia
3
Institute of Earth Sciences, Saint-Petersburg State University, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ryan Bailey
Water 2021, 13(17), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172435
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 27 August 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 4 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Processes in Lakes)
Oxygen conditions in ice-covered lakes depend on many factors, which, in turn, are influenced by a changing climate, so detection of the oxygen trend becomes difficult. Our research was based on data of long-term measurements of dissolved oxygen (2007–2020), water temperature, under-ice solar radiation, and snow-ice thickness (1995–2020) in Lake Vendyurskoe (Northwestern Russia). Changes of air temperature and precipitation in the study region during 1994–2020 and ice phenology of Lake Vendyurskoe for the same period based on field data and FLake model calculations were analyzed. The interannual variability of ice-on and ice-off dates covered wide time intervals (5 and 3 weeks, respectively), but no significant trends were revealed. In years with early ice-on, oxygen content decreased by more than 50% by the end of winter. In years with late ice-on and intermediate ice-off, the oxygen decrease was less than 40%. A significant negative trend was revealed for snow-ice cover thickness in spring. A climatic decrease of snow-ice cover thickness contributes to the rise of under-ice irradiance and earlier onset of under-ice convection. In years with early and long convection, an increase in oxygen content by 10–15% was observed at the end of the ice-covered period, presumably due to photosynthesis of phytoplankton. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow lake; ice-covered period; ice phenology; snow-ice cover thickness; dissolved oxygen; water temperature; under-ice irradiance; radiatively driven convection; climate change shallow lake; ice-covered period; ice phenology; snow-ice cover thickness; dissolved oxygen; water temperature; under-ice irradiance; radiatively driven convection; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zdorovennova, G.; Palshin, N.; Golosov, S.; Efremova, T.; Belashev, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Fedorova, I.; Zverev, I.; Zdorovennov, R.; Terzhevik, A. Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Ice-Covered Lake in Winter: Effect of Changes in Light, Thermal and Ice Regimes. Water 2021, 13, 2435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172435

AMA Style

Zdorovennova G, Palshin N, Golosov S, Efremova T, Belashev B, Bogdanov S, Fedorova I, Zverev I, Zdorovennov R, Terzhevik A. Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Ice-Covered Lake in Winter: Effect of Changes in Light, Thermal and Ice Regimes. Water. 2021; 13(17):2435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zdorovennova, Galina, Nikolay Palshin, Sergey Golosov, Tatiana Efremova, Boris Belashev, Sergey Bogdanov, Irina Fedorova, Ilia Zverev, Roman Zdorovennov, and Arkady Terzhevik. 2021. "Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Ice-Covered Lake in Winter: Effect of Changes in Light, Thermal and Ice Regimes" Water 13, no. 17: 2435. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172435

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