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Article

Groundwater Quality Issues and Challenges for Drinking and Irrigation Uses in Central Ganga Basin Dominated with Rice-Wheat Cropping System

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Groundwater Hydrology Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, India
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Department of Farm Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
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Hydrological Investigation Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, India
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School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
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Environmental Hydrology Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, India
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Central India Hydrology, National Institute of Hydrology-Regional Centre, Bhopal 462016, India
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Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, India
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Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Patna 800005, India
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Claudia Cherubini and Domenico Cicchella
Water 2021, 13(17), 2344; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172344
Received: 9 July 2021 / Revised: 19 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 26 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Management in a Changing World: Challenges and Endeavors)
Increased population and increasing demands for food in the Indo-Gangetic plain are likely to exert pressure on fresh water due to rise in demand for drinking and irrigation water. The study focuses on Bhojpur district, Bihar located in the central Ganga basin, to assess the groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purpose and discuss the issues and challenges. Groundwater is mostly utilized in the study area for drinking and irrigation purposes (major crops sown in the area are rice and wheat). There were around 45 groundwater samples collected across the study region in the pre-monsoon season (year 2019). The chemical analytical results show that Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3 ions are present in abundance in groundwater and governing the groundwater chemistry. Further analysis shows that 66%, 69% and 84% of the samples exceeded the acceptable limit of arsenic (As), Fe and Mn respectively and other trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) are within the permissible limit of drinking water as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standard for drinking water. Generally, high As concentration has been found in the aquifer (depth ranges from 20 to 40 m below ground surface) located in proximity of river Ganga. For assessing the irrigation water quality, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Na%, permeability index (PI) and calcium alteration index (CAI) were calculated and found that almost all the samples are found to be in good to excellent category for irrigation purposes. The groundwater facie has been classified into Ca-Mg-HCO3 type. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bhojpur; groundwater; drinking; irrigation; quality; central Ganga Bhojpur; groundwater; drinking; irrigation; quality; central Ganga
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, S.; Kumar, M.; Chandola, V.K.; Kumar, V.; Saini, R.K.; Pant, N.; Kumari, N.; Srivastava, A.; Singh, S.; Singh, R.; Krishan, G.; Induwar, S.P.; Kumar, S.; Yadav, B.K.; Maurya, N.S.; Chaudhary, A. Groundwater Quality Issues and Challenges for Drinking and Irrigation Uses in Central Ganga Basin Dominated with Rice-Wheat Cropping System. Water 2021, 13, 2344. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172344

AMA Style

Kumar S, Kumar M, Chandola VK, Kumar V, Saini RK, Pant N, Kumari N, Srivastava A, Singh S, Singh R, Krishan G, Induwar SP, Kumar S, Yadav BK, Maurya NS, Chaudhary A. Groundwater Quality Issues and Challenges for Drinking and Irrigation Uses in Central Ganga Basin Dominated with Rice-Wheat Cropping System. Water. 2021; 13(17):2344. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172344

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Sumant, Manish Kumar, Veerendra K. Chandola, Vinod Kumar, Ravi K. Saini, Neeraj Pant, Nikul Kumari, Ankur Srivastava, Surjeet Singh, Rajesh Singh, Gopal Krishan, Shashi P. Induwar, Sudhir Kumar, Brijesh K. Yadav, Nityanand S. Maurya, and Anju Chaudhary. 2021. "Groundwater Quality Issues and Challenges for Drinking and Irrigation Uses in Central Ganga Basin Dominated with Rice-Wheat Cropping System" Water 13, no. 17: 2344. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172344

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