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Article

Reclaimed Water for Vineyard Irrigation in a Mediterranean Context: Life Cycle Environmental Impacts, Life Cycle Costs, and Eco-Efficiency

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Department of Management, Finance and Technology, LUM Giuseppe Degennaro University, S.S. 100-Km 18, 70010 Casamassima, Italy
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Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy
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Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council (CNR-ISPA), Via Amendola, 122/O, 70125 Bari, Italy
4
International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM-Bari), Via Ceglie 9, 70010 Valenzano, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Junzeng Xu
Water 2021, 13(16), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162242
Received: 7 June 2021 / Revised: 13 August 2021 / Accepted: 14 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
The agricultural sector in the Mediterranean region, is increasingly using reclaimed water as an additional source for irrigation. However, there is a limited number of case studies about product-based life cycle analysis to ensure that the overall benefits of reclaimed water do indeed outweigh the impacts. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) methods are used in this study to investigate the environmental impacts and costs of vineyard cropping systems when tertiary reclaimed water is used as a supplementary source of irrigation water (integrated system). The conventional production system utilizing 100% groundwater was used as a reference system. As a proxy for sustainability, eco-efficiency, which combines economic and environmental performance, was assessed. The LCA revealed that the integrated system could reduce the net environmental impact by 23.8% due to lower consumption of irrigation water (−50%), electricity (−27.7%), and chemical fertilizers (−22.6%). Nevertheless, trade-offs between economics and the environment occurred as an integrated system is associated with higher life cycle costs and lower economic returns due to lower crop yield (−9.1%). The combined eco-efficiency assessment (ratio of economic value added to total environmental impact) revealed that the integrated system outperformed in terms of eco-efficiency by 12.6% due to lower environmental impacts. These results confirmed that reclaimed water could help to ensure an economically profitable yield with net environmental benefits. Our results provided an up-to-date and consistent life cycle analysis contributing to the creation of a valuable knowledge base for the associated costs and benefits of vineyard cultivation with treated wastewater. View Full-Text
Keywords: eco-efficiency analysis; life cycle assessment (LCA); life cycle costing (LCC); wastewater reuse; water reclamation; irrigation eco-efficiency analysis; life cycle assessment (LCA); life cycle costing (LCC); wastewater reuse; water reclamation; irrigation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Canaj, K.; Morrone, D.; Roma, R.; Boari, F.; Cantore, V.; Todorovic, M. Reclaimed Water for Vineyard Irrigation in a Mediterranean Context: Life Cycle Environmental Impacts, Life Cycle Costs, and Eco-Efficiency. Water 2021, 13, 2242. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162242

AMA Style

Canaj K, Morrone D, Roma R, Boari F, Cantore V, Todorovic M. Reclaimed Water for Vineyard Irrigation in a Mediterranean Context: Life Cycle Environmental Impacts, Life Cycle Costs, and Eco-Efficiency. Water. 2021; 13(16):2242. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162242

Chicago/Turabian Style

Canaj, Kledja, Domenico Morrone, Rocco Roma, Francesca Boari, Vito Cantore, and Mladen Todorovic. 2021. "Reclaimed Water for Vineyard Irrigation in a Mediterranean Context: Life Cycle Environmental Impacts, Life Cycle Costs, and Eco-Efficiency" Water 13, no. 16: 2242. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162242

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