UVs are important ingredients in common cosmetic products (e.g., sunscreens, hairsprays, soap). After their use, they can enter the aquatic ecosystem and negatively affect non-target aquatic organisms. The aim of our study was to evaluate acute embryotoxicity of selected organic UVs 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), octocrylene (OC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3). The chemicals were tested both as a single substance and their mixtures. The types of mixtures were chosen as follows: the combination of OC and 4-MBC; the combination of PBSA, EHMC and BP-3 and the combination of all five UV filters. The embryotoxicity was evaluated using a modified method of the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test-OECD guideline 236 and zebrafish (Danio rerio
) was selected as a suitable fish model organism. The toxic effects were studied by assessing mortality, hatching and the occurrence of malformations at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post fertilization. The obtained results indicate that especially the mixture of OC and 4-MBC presents a potential risk of embryotoxicity for zebrafish due to a significant increase in mortality, which was 41.7% in the experimental group exposed to 10 μg/L at 96 h post fertilization. Based on our results, the most effected sub-lethal endpoints were hatching and malformation (e.g., edema of pericard, bent spine, yolk edema), but with no statistically significant effect. These results differ within groups with single UVs and with their mixtures, suggesting the interaction of these substances when they are exposed together.
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