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WDSchain: A Toolbox for Enhancing the Security Using Blockchain Technology in Water Distribution System

1
School of Engineering and Built Environment, Birmingham City University, Birmingham B4 7XG, UK
2
School of Computing and Digital Technology, Birmingham City University, Birmingham B4 7XG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco De Paola
Water 2021, 13(14), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141944
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 8 July 2021 / Accepted: 8 July 2021 / Published: 14 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
This work develops a toolbox called WDSchain on MATLAB that can simulate blockchain on water distribution systems (WDS). WDSchain can import data from Excel and EPANET water modelling software. It extends the EPANET to enable simulation blockchain of the hydraulic data at any intended nodes. Using WDSchain will strengthen network automation and the security in WDS. WDSchain can process time-series data with two simulation modes: (1) static blockchain, which takes a snapshot of one-time interval data of all nodes in WDS as input and output into chained blocks at a time, and (2) dynamic blockchain, which takes all simulated time-series data of all the nodes as input and establishes chained blocks at the simulated time. Five consensus mechanisms are developed in WDSchain to provide data at different security levels using PoW, PoT, PoV, PoA, and PoAuth. Five different sizes of WDS are simulated in WDSchain for performance evaluation. The results show that a trade-off is needed between the system complexity and security level for data validation. The WDSchain provides a methodology to further explore the data validation using Blockchain to WDS. The limitations of WDSchain do not consider selection of blockchain nodes and broadcasting delay compared to commercial blockchain platforms. View Full-Text
Keywords: water distribution system; blockchain technology; security; IoT; EPANET; consensus mechanisms water distribution system; blockchain technology; security; IoT; EPANET; consensus mechanisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahmoud, H.H.; Wu, W.; Wang, Y. WDSchain: A Toolbox for Enhancing the Security Using Blockchain Technology in Water Distribution System. Water 2021, 13, 1944. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141944

AMA Style

Mahmoud HH, Wu W, Wang Y. WDSchain: A Toolbox for Enhancing the Security Using Blockchain Technology in Water Distribution System. Water. 2021; 13(14):1944. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141944

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahmoud, Haitham H., Wenyan Wu, and Yonghao Wang. 2021. "WDSchain: A Toolbox for Enhancing the Security Using Blockchain Technology in Water Distribution System" Water 13, no. 14: 1944. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141944

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