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Characteristics of the Exchange Flow of the Bay of Quinte and Its Sheltered Embayments with Lake Ontario

Physics and Space Science, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4, Canada
Academic Editor: George Arhonditsis
Water 2021, 13(13), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131857
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 3 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
The nature of the exchange flow between the Bay of Quinte and Lake Ontario has been studied to illustrate the effects of the seasonal onset of stratification on the flushing and transport of material within the bay. Flushing is an important physical process in bays used as drinking water sources because it affects phosphorous loads and water quality. A 2-d analytical model and a 3-dimensional numerical coastal model (FVCOM) were used together with in situ observations of temperature and water speed to illustrate the two-layer nature of the late summer exchange flow between the Bay of Quinte and Lake Ontario. Observations and model simulations were performed for spring and summer of 2018 and showed a cool wedge of bottom water in late summer extending from Lake Ontario and moving into Hay Bay at approximately 3 cm/s. Observed and modelled water speeds were used to calculate monthly averaged fluxes out of the Bay of Quinte. After the thermocline developed, Lake Ontario water backflowed into the Bay of Quinte at a rate approximately equal to the surface outflow decreasing the flushing rate. Over approximately 18.5 days of July 2018, the winds were insufficiently strong to break down the stratification, indicating that deeper waters of the bay are not well mixed. Particle tracking was used to illustrate how Hay Bay provides a habitat for algae growth within the bay. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bay of Quinte; drifter observations; exchange flow; Hay Bay; isolated bays Bay of Quinte; drifter observations; exchange flow; Hay Bay; isolated bays
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shore, J.A. Characteristics of the Exchange Flow of the Bay of Quinte and Its Sheltered Embayments with Lake Ontario. Water 2021, 13, 1857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131857

AMA Style

Shore JA. Characteristics of the Exchange Flow of the Bay of Quinte and Its Sheltered Embayments with Lake Ontario. Water. 2021; 13(13):1857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131857

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shore, Jennifer A. 2021. "Characteristics of the Exchange Flow of the Bay of Quinte and Its Sheltered Embayments with Lake Ontario" Water 13, no. 13: 1857. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131857

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