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The Role of Frost Processes in the Retreat of River Banks

Department of Geography, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow, Poland
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Academic Editor: Matjaž Mikoš
Water 2021, 13(13), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131812
Received: 12 May 2021 / Revised: 26 June 2021 / Accepted: 27 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Erosion and Sediment Transport)
The rate of bank retreat was measured using erosion pins on the alluvial banks of the rivers in the Podhale region (the boundary zone between Central and Outer Carpathians) during the hydrological year 2013/2014. During the winter half-year (November–April), the bank retreat was mainly caused by processes related to the freezing and thawing of the ground (swelling, creep, downfall). During the summer half-year (May–October), fluvial processes and mass movements such as lateral erosion, washing out, and sliding predominated. The share of fluvial processes in the total annual amount of bank retreat (71 cm on average) was 4 times greater than that of the frost phenomena. Erosion on bank surfaces by frost phenomena during the cold half-year was greatest (up to 38 cm) on the upper parts of banks composed of fine-grained alluvium, while fluvial erosion during the summer half-year (exceeding 80 cm) mostly affected the lower parts of the banks, composed of gravel. The precise calculation of the relative role of frost phenomena in the annual balance of bank erosion was precluded at some stations by the loss of erosion pins in the summer flood. View Full-Text
Keywords: river banks; erosion; frost phenomena; fluvial processes; West Carpathians river banks; erosion; frost phenomena; fluvial processes; West Carpathians
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MDPI and ACS Style

Augustowski, K.; Kukulak, J. The Role of Frost Processes in the Retreat of River Banks. Water 2021, 13, 1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131812

AMA Style

Augustowski K, Kukulak J. The Role of Frost Processes in the Retreat of River Banks. Water. 2021; 13(13):1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Augustowski, Karol, and Józef Kukulak. 2021. "The Role of Frost Processes in the Retreat of River Banks" Water 13, no. 13: 1812. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131812

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