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Article

Explaining Variation in Abundance and Species Diversity of Avian Cestodes in Brine Shrimps in the Salar de Atacama and Other Chilean Wetlands

1
Laboratory of Genetics, Aquaculture & Biodiversity, Universidad de Los Lagos, Avda. Fuchslocher 1305, Osorno 5290000, Chile
2
Department of Wetland Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Américo Vespucio 26, 41092 Seville, Spain
3
Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville, Spain
4
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nisikawa Usio
Water 2021, 13(13), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131742
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 20 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Further biogeographical studies of parasites are vital to improve our understanding of biodiversity distribution and predict the impacts of global change. Hypersaline lakes are good laboratories to investigate the avian cestode abundance and species diversity given the abundance of hosts (waterbirds and Artemia) and their broad latitudinal distribution. We analysed cestode infection in brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in northern (Atacama) and central Chile and compared them to results from A. persimilis in southern Chile (Patagonia). Thus, we covered a broad latitudinal gradient from 23° to 53° S. Five cestode taxa including two species of the genus Flamingolepis, Gynandrotaenia stammeri, Eurycestus avoceti, and Fuhrmannolepis averini were recorded from A. franciscana in Atacama lagoons (prevalence = 4.1%). In contrast, no cestode infection was detected in central Chile, likely because they are temporary wetlands. Parasites of flamingos and shorebirds were associated with Atacama lagoons (arid and higher salinity), while Confluaria podicipina and Fimbriarioides sp. (parasites of grebes and ducks, respectively) were dominant in Patagonian lagoons (sub-antarctic and of lower salinity). These differences mirror changes in the relative abundance of the respective final hosts. The flamingo parasite Flamingolepis sp. 1 was the most prevalent and abundant cestode in Atacama, where it was recorded only in autumn. Seasonality and habitat effects (especially abundance and phenology of different bird species) appear to override any latitudinal trends in the prevalence, diversity, and distribution of cestodes. Cestode prevalence was higher in larger wetlands but was not related to the sex of either intermediate host. We recorded a greater taxonomic richness at the cestode family level in Atacama, but a greater dominance of a single family of avian hosts (the flamingos). Ours is the first spatio–temporal study of Artemia cestodes at local and regional scales in the southern hemisphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: Artemia; cestode infection; environmental factors; latitude; hypersaline lagoons; Chile Artemia; cestode infection; environmental factors; latitude; hypersaline lagoons; Chile
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MDPI and ACS Style

Redón, S.; Gajardo, G.; Vasileva, G.P.; Sánchez, M.I.; Green, A.J. Explaining Variation in Abundance and Species Diversity of Avian Cestodes in Brine Shrimps in the Salar de Atacama and Other Chilean Wetlands. Water 2021, 13, 1742. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131742

AMA Style

Redón S, Gajardo G, Vasileva GP, Sánchez MI, Green AJ. Explaining Variation in Abundance and Species Diversity of Avian Cestodes in Brine Shrimps in the Salar de Atacama and Other Chilean Wetlands. Water. 2021; 13(13):1742. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131742

Chicago/Turabian Style

Redón, Stella, Gonzalo Gajardo, Gergana P. Vasileva, Marta I. Sánchez, and Andy J. Green 2021. "Explaining Variation in Abundance and Species Diversity of Avian Cestodes in Brine Shrimps in the Salar de Atacama and Other Chilean Wetlands" Water 13, no. 13: 1742. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131742

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