Next Article in Journal
Physiological Responses of the Submerged Macrophyte Stuckenia pectinata to High Salinity and Irradiance Stress to Assess Eutrophication Management and Climatic Effects: An Integrative Approach
Next Article in Special Issue
Potential Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Egypt
Previous Article in Journal
Spatial–Temporal Variations of Total Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Poyang, Dongting and Taihu Lakes from Landsat-8 Data
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification of Extreme Weather Events Using Meteorological and Hydrological Indicators in the Laborec River Catchment, Slovakia
Article

Assessing the Impact of Lining Polluted Streams on Groundwater Quality: A Case Study of the Eastern Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt

1
Department of Water and Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
2
Higher Institute of Engineering, Belbies 55419, Egypt
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
4
Institute of Water Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Technology Brno, 60200 Brno, Czech Republic
5
Center for Research and Innovation in Construction Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Frédéric Huneau and David Widory
Water 2021, 13(12), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121705
Received: 11 April 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 20 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
Groundwater is considered to be an important water supply for domestics, industry, and irrigation in many areas of the world. Renewable groundwater is recharged by rainfall and seepage from canals and open drain networks. Agricultural and industrial drainage, as well as domestic drainage, represent the main discharges into open drains. Therefore, these drains are considered to be a source of recharge as well as a source of pollution. In this study, we aim to evaluate the impact of the Bahr El Baqar drain system on groundwater quality in the Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt. MODFLOW was used to create a numerical model to simulate groundwater flow in an aquifer and MT3DS was used to simulate solute transport from the open contaminated Bahr El Baqar drain to the groundwater. Two approaches were developed in the study area. The first approach was applied to investigate the impact of increasing the abstraction rates on the contaminant transport into the aquifer, the second approach was developed to identify the effect of lining the drain using different materials on contaminant extension in the aquifer to protect groundwater quality in the east Nile Delta Aquifer. The results showed that the TDS values increased by 18.23%, 23.29%, and 19.24% with increased abstraction rates of 15%, 34%, and 70%, resulting from population increases in 2010, 2025, and 2040, respectively; however, the TDS in the aquifer decreased from 0.6%, to 6.36%, 88.35%, and 90.47% by using lining materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; contamination; open drains; protection; MODFLOW groundwater; contamination; open drains; protection; MODFLOW
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abd-Elaty, I.; Said, A.M.; Abdelaal, G.M.; Zeleňáková, M.; Jandora, J.; Abd-Elhamid, H.F. Assessing the Impact of Lining Polluted Streams on Groundwater Quality: A Case Study of the Eastern Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt. Water 2021, 13, 1705. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121705

AMA Style

Abd-Elaty I, Said AM, Abdelaal GM, Zeleňáková M, Jandora J, Abd-Elhamid HF. Assessing the Impact of Lining Polluted Streams on Groundwater Quality: A Case Study of the Eastern Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt. Water. 2021; 13(12):1705. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121705

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abd-Elaty, Ismail, Abdelrahman M. Said, Gamal M. Abdelaal, Martina Zeleňáková, Jan Jandora, and Hany F. Abd-Elhamid 2021. "Assessing the Impact of Lining Polluted Streams on Groundwater Quality: A Case Study of the Eastern Nile Delta Aquifer, Egypt" Water 13, no. 12: 1705. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121705

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop