Next Article in Journal
Flash Flood Susceptibility Assessment and Zonation Using an Integrating Analytic Hierarchy Process and Frequency Ratio Model for the Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Next Article in Special Issue
Mapping Interflow Potential and the Validation of Index-Overlay Weightings by Using Coupled Surface Water and Groundwater Flow Model
Previous Article in Journal
Baseline Study on Microplastics in Indian Rivers under Different Anthropogenic Influences
Article

Effects of Decaying Hydraulic Conductivity on the Groundwater Flow Processes in a Managed Aquifer Recharge Area in an Alluvial Fan

by 1,2,3,4,*, 5,*, 5 and 5
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210098, China
2
Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Jilin University, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130021, China
3
School of Water Conservancy Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
4
Henan Key Laboratory of Groundwater Pollution Prevention and Rehabilitation, Zhengzhou 450001, China
5
The Fifth Institute of Resources and Environment Survey of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450001, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marco D’Oria, Ilaria Butera, Andrea Zanini and Maria Giovanna Tanda
Water 2021, 13(12), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121649
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Flow and Transport Models)
Groundwater artificial recharge and medium characteristics represent the major factors in controlling the groundwater flow processes in managed aquifer recharge areas. According to the depositional features of alluvial fans, an analogous homogeneous phreatic sand tank aquifer and the corresponding inhomogeneous scale numerical models were established to investigate the groundwater flow under the combined influence of artificial recharge (human activities) and decaying hydraulic conductivity (medium characteristics). In this study, groundwater flow through a managed aquifer recharge area in an alluvial fan was analyzed under the conditions of decaying hydraulic conductivity (K) with depth or length from apex to apron. The results showed that groundwater flow processes induced by artificial recharge were significantly controlled by the increasing decay exponents of K. The decaying K with depth or length in alluvial fan areas expanded the degree of influence of artificial recharge on groundwater flow. With the increase of decay exponents, the flow directions gradually changed from a horizontal to vertical direction. Groundwater age and spatial variability could also be increased by the increasing decay exponents. The residence time distributions (RTDs) of ambient groundwater and artificially recharged water exhibited logarithmic, exponential, and power law behavior. Penetration depth and travel times of ambient groundwater flow could be affected by artificial recharge and decay exponents. Furthermore, with the increase of decay exponents, the thickness of the artificially recharged water lens and travel times of artificially recharged water were increased. These findings have important implications for the performance of managed aquifer recharge in alluvial fan areas as well as the importance of considering the gradual decrease of K with depth and length. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater flow; managed aquifer recharge; decaying hydraulic conductivity; alluvial fan; lab-scale sand tank; numerical simulation groundwater flow; managed aquifer recharge; decaying hydraulic conductivity; alluvial fan; lab-scale sand tank; numerical simulation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, P.; Zhang, L.; Chang, B.; Wang, S. Effects of Decaying Hydraulic Conductivity on the Groundwater Flow Processes in a Managed Aquifer Recharge Area in an Alluvial Fan. Water 2021, 13, 1649. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121649

AMA Style

Wu P, Zhang L, Chang B, Wang S. Effects of Decaying Hydraulic Conductivity on the Groundwater Flow Processes in a Managed Aquifer Recharge Area in an Alluvial Fan. Water. 2021; 13(12):1649. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121649

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Peipeng, Lijuan Zhang, Bin Chang, and Shuhong Wang. 2021. "Effects of Decaying Hydraulic Conductivity on the Groundwater Flow Processes in a Managed Aquifer Recharge Area in an Alluvial Fan" Water 13, no. 12: 1649. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121649

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop