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Article

Fluoride Polluted Groundwaters in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): Natural Source and Remediation

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Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences (DiBEST), University of Calabria, P. Bucci street, cubo 15b–87036 Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy
2
Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM-CNR), P. Bucci street, cubo 17/C–87036 Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy
3
Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry—Clean Technologies and Processes (LAQV), REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Adriana Bruggeman
Water 2021, 13(12), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121626
Received: 4 May 2021 / Revised: 5 June 2021 / Accepted: 6 June 2021 / Published: 9 June 2021
Excessive ingestion of fluoride through the consumption of F-rich drinking water could cause adverse effects to human health. For this reason, the WHO has fixed 1.5 mg/L as the maximum F- concentration for drinking water. In this work, a detailed geochemical characterization was performed to define the source of natural pollution of two groundwaters (samples Pc and Bg) coming from deep crystalline aquifers located in the Calabria region (southern Italy) and to define and optimize the most appropriate water treatment strategy. The samples were classified as a F enriched NaHCO3 type of water. In particular, the F concentrations observed were 30 mg/L and 8.9 mg/L for the Pc and Bg samples, respectively. Based on the acquired geochemical characterization knowledge, the groundwaters were treated by two thin-film composite NF membranes, namely SPR 10113 and SPR 10114 which have so far not been used for water defluoridation. It was found that the SPR 10114 membrane was able to guarantee water permeates with F contents lower than the threshold value of 1.5 mg/L for both treated waters, whereas the fluoride content remained above the threshold value when the Pc sample was treated using the SPR 10113 membrane. The obtained permeates were characterized by a low ionic load and were not suitable for long-term consumption as drinking water. However, all of the produced waters did not need any further re-mineralizing processes for agricultural irrigation or other purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofiltration; fluoride; polluted groundwaters; fluorite mineralization nanofiltration; fluoride; polluted groundwaters; fluorite mineralization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fuoco, I.; Apollaro, C.; Criscuoli, A.; De Rosa, R.; Velizarov, S.; Figoli, A. Fluoride Polluted Groundwaters in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): Natural Source and Remediation. Water 2021, 13, 1626. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121626

AMA Style

Fuoco I, Apollaro C, Criscuoli A, De Rosa R, Velizarov S, Figoli A. Fluoride Polluted Groundwaters in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): Natural Source and Remediation. Water. 2021; 13(12):1626. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121626

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fuoco, Ilaria, Carmine Apollaro, Alessandra Criscuoli, Rosanna De Rosa, Svetlozar Velizarov, and Alberto Figoli. 2021. "Fluoride Polluted Groundwaters in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): Natural Source and Remediation" Water 13, no. 12: 1626. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121626

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