Next Article in Journal
Trend Analysis of Rainfall Using Gridded Data over a Region of Southern Italy
Next Article in Special Issue
Combined Adsorption and Photocatalytic Degradation for Ciprofloxacin Removal Using Sugarcane Bagasse/N,S-TiO2 Powder Composite
Previous Article in Journal
Using MODIS-NDVI Time Series to Quantify the Vegetation Responses to River Hydro-Geomorphology in the Wandering River Floodplain in an Arid Region
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fluoride Polluted Groundwaters in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): Natural Source and Remediation
 
 
Article

Membrane Filtration Opportunities for the Treatment of Black Liquor in the Paper and Pulp Industry

1
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, NOVA School of Science and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, P-2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
2
SUEZ Water Technologies and Solutions, D-06731 Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Qilin Wang
Water 2021, 13(16), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162270
Received: 7 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
Black liquor is a highly alkaline liquid by-product of the kraft pulping process, rich in organic molecules (hemicelluloses, lignin, and organic acids) and inorganic pulping chemicals such as sodium salts and sulphur-containing compounds. The release of this wastewater without further treatment could have serious environmental and financial implications. Therefore, a costly treatment process is used nowadays. Nanofiltration has been studied in the last few years as a promising alternative to recycle the cooking chemicals required for the separation of lignin and cellulose, but the development of pH-stable membranes with the potential to operate at industrial scales is fundamental in order to make this possible. In this study, the filtration performance of two in-house made membranes is evaluated and compared with a commercial NF membrane to determine the viability of their use for the treatment of black liquor. For this purpose, filtration experiments with simulated black liquor were performed. We identified that Membrane A has the higher potential for this application due to its competitive permeate flux (ca. 24 L m−2 h−1 at a trans-membrane pressure of 21.5 bar), and high rejection of organic components and salts from the cooking liquor (on average, 92.50% for the TOC, 84.10% for the CO32−, 88.70% for the sulphates, 73.21% for the Na+, and 99.99% for the Mg2+). View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofiltration; ultrafiltration; alkaline pH; black liquor; kraft process; donnan effect nanofiltration; ultrafiltration; alkaline pH; black liquor; kraft process; donnan effect
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Valderrama, O.J.; Zedda, K.L.; Velizarov, S. Membrane Filtration Opportunities for the Treatment of Black Liquor in the Paper and Pulp Industry. Water 2021, 13, 2270. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162270

AMA Style

Valderrama OJ, Zedda KL, Velizarov S. Membrane Filtration Opportunities for the Treatment of Black Liquor in the Paper and Pulp Industry. Water. 2021; 13(16):2270. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162270

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valderrama, Olenka Jibaja, Karina Listiarini Zedda, and Svetlozar Velizarov. 2021. "Membrane Filtration Opportunities for the Treatment of Black Liquor in the Paper and Pulp Industry" Water 13, no. 16: 2270. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162270

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop