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Article

Flood Inundation Analysis in Penang Island (Malaysia) Based on InSAR Maps of Land Subsidence and Local Sea Level Scenarios

1
School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
2
School of Housing, Building, and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ian Miller
Water 2021, 13(11), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111518
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 26 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Hazards Management)
Penang Island is an important economic center in Malaysia and most of its population live in the coastal areas. Although previous studies have shown that it is vulnerable to rising sea levels, the combination of sea-level rise and local land subsidence would be devastating. Therefore, the objective of this study is to apply the local land subsidence model to estimate the inundated areas which relate to sea level rise by 2100. Land subsidence is quantified by the SBAS-InSAR technique on the basis of Sentinel-1 radar images for both ascending and descending tracks. For the first time, the geostatistical analyst method is used to merge the different track results and create the land subsidence models, the results show this method can maximize land deformation fields and minimize deformation errors. According to the land deformation results, all of the coastlines in the east of the island have differing medium levels of subsidence, especially in reclaimed lands and building areas. Lastly, the bathtub model is used to quantify the inundated areas by combing regional sea-level rise projection and local land subsidence models under CoastalDEM in 2100 projections. The results of this study indicate land subsidence that would increase 2.0% and 5.9% of the inundated area based on the different scenarios by 2100 projections. View Full-Text
Keywords: land subsidence; flood inundation; InSAR; Penang Island; Sentinel-1 land subsidence; flood inundation; InSAR; Penang Island; Sentinel-1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, G.; San, L.H.; Zhu, Y. Flood Inundation Analysis in Penang Island (Malaysia) Based on InSAR Maps of Land Subsidence and Local Sea Level Scenarios. Water 2021, 13, 1518. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111518

AMA Style

Gao G, San LH, Zhu Y. Flood Inundation Analysis in Penang Island (Malaysia) Based on InSAR Maps of Land Subsidence and Local Sea Level Scenarios. Water. 2021; 13(11):1518. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111518

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gao, Guosheng, Lim H. San, and Yidan Zhu. 2021. "Flood Inundation Analysis in Penang Island (Malaysia) Based on InSAR Maps of Land Subsidence and Local Sea Level Scenarios" Water 13, no. 11: 1518. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111518

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