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Article

Antimicrobial Effect of Plasma-Activated Tap Water on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans

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Laboratório de Plasmas e Processos, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, São José dos Campos 12228-900, Brazil
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Oral Biopathology Graduate Program, São José dos Campos Institute of Science & Technology, São Paulo State University, UNESP, São Paulo 12245-000, Brazil
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Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Talim 330, São José dos Campos 12231-280, Brazil
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Faculty of Engineering (FEG)—São Paulo State University (UNESP), Guaratinguetá (SP) 12516-410, Brazil
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Department of Environment Engineering, São José dos Campos Institute of Science & Technology, São Paulo State University, UNESP, São Paulo 12247-016, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hodon Ryu
Water 2021, 13(11), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111480
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 22 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Nonchemical Water Treatment and Applications)
In this study, the potential antimicrobial activity of plasma-activated tap water (PAW) was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. For this, PAW was prepared in a gliding arc plasma system using two treatment conditions: stagnant water and water stirring by a magnetic stirrer, called moving water. Subsequently, their oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), pH, electrical conductivity (σ), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were monitored in different areas of the sample divided according to the depth of the beaker. It was observed that PAW obtained in dynamic conditions showed a more uniform acidity among the evaluated areas with pH 3.53 and ORP of 215 mV. Finally, standardized suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10799), and Candida albicans (SC 5314) were treated with PAW, and the reduction of viable cells determined the antimicrobial effect. Our results indicate that the tap water, activated by plasma treatment using gliding arc, is an excellent inactivation agent in the case of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. On the other hand, no significant antimicrobial activity was achieved for Candida albicans. View Full-Text
Keywords: plasma activated water; tap water; atmospheric plasma; gliding arc discharge; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli; Candida albicans plasma activated water; tap water; atmospheric plasma; gliding arc discharge; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli; Candida albicans
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiappim, W.; Sampaio, A.d.G.; Miranda, F.; Fraga, M.; Petraconi, G.; da Silva Sobrinho, A.; Kostov, K.; Koga-Ito, C.; Pessoa, R. Antimicrobial Effect of Plasma-Activated Tap Water on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Water 2021, 13, 1480. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111480

AMA Style

Chiappim W, Sampaio AdG, Miranda F, Fraga M, Petraconi G, da Silva Sobrinho A, Kostov K, Koga-Ito C, Pessoa R. Antimicrobial Effect of Plasma-Activated Tap Water on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Water. 2021; 13(11):1480. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111480

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiappim, William, Aline d.G. Sampaio, Felipe Miranda, Mariana Fraga, Gilberto Petraconi, Argemiro da Silva Sobrinho, Konstantin Kostov, Cristiane Koga-Ito, and Rodrigo Pessoa. 2021. "Antimicrobial Effect of Plasma-Activated Tap Water on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans" Water 13, no. 11: 1480. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111480

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