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Article

Preparation of Activated Carbon from the Wood of Paulownia tomentosa as an Efficient Adsorbent for the Removal of Acid Red 4 and Methylene Blue Present in Wastewater

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Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, KPK, Pakistan
2
Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila St., 50411 Tartu, Estonia
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Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 5 Kreutzwaldi St., 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India
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Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Centre of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect, 33, Build. 2, 119071 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Biochemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower 11800, KPK, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Didier Orange and Xanel Vecino
Water 2021, 13(11), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111453
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 22 May 2021
Paulownia tomentosa, a woody plant that is widely found in Pakistan and in other regions of the world, was used as a raw material to prepare activated carbon using chemical and physical activation methods. Adsorption of the dyes- acid red 4 and methylene blue onto the prepared activated carbon were analyzed by batch experiments. The impacts of different adsorption parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were also evaluated. Equilibrium data were fitted into various isotherm models such as: Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich. High regression values were achieved with Langmuir isotherm model. Different kinetic adsorption models such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion model models were applied. The adsorption kinetics was found to be best-fitted into pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The optimum pH for acid red 4 was around 1 while for methylene blue it was 8. The optimum adsorbent dosage was 0.3 g for both dyes used. The activation energy (Ea) values were 30.57 and 3.712 kJ/mol, respectively for acid red 4 and methylene blue while the enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) values were correspondingly as 24.88/1.1927 kJ/mol and −2843.32/−0.329 J·mol/K for the mentioned dyes. The experimental result showed that the prepared activated carbon was the best in the removal of acid red 4 and methylene blue from aqueous media and therefore, could be preferably used as cheap adsorbent in wastewater treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Paulownia tomentosa; activated carbon; acid red 4; methylene blue; equilibrium data Paulownia tomentosa; activated carbon; acid red 4; methylene blue; equilibrium data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alam, S.; Khan, M.S.; Bibi, W.; Zekker, I.; Burlakovs, J.; Ghangrekar, M.M.; Bhowmick, G.D.; Kallistova, A.; Pimenov, N.; Zahoor, M. Preparation of Activated Carbon from the Wood of Paulownia tomentosa as an Efficient Adsorbent for the Removal of Acid Red 4 and Methylene Blue Present in Wastewater. Water 2021, 13, 1453. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111453

AMA Style

Alam S, Khan MS, Bibi W, Zekker I, Burlakovs J, Ghangrekar MM, Bhowmick GD, Kallistova A, Pimenov N, Zahoor M. Preparation of Activated Carbon from the Wood of Paulownia tomentosa as an Efficient Adsorbent for the Removal of Acid Red 4 and Methylene Blue Present in Wastewater. Water. 2021; 13(11):1453. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111453

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alam, Sultan, Muhammad S. Khan, Wahida Bibi, Ivar Zekker, Juris Burlakovs, Makarand M. Ghangrekar, Gourav D. Bhowmick, Anna Kallistova, Nikolai Pimenov, and Muhammad Zahoor. 2021. "Preparation of Activated Carbon from the Wood of Paulownia tomentosa as an Efficient Adsorbent for the Removal of Acid Red 4 and Methylene Blue Present in Wastewater" Water 13, no. 11: 1453. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111453

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