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Article

Start-Up of Anammox SBR from Non-Specific Inoculum and Process Acceleration Methods by Hydrazine

1
Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila St., 50411 Tartu, Estonia
2
Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India
3
Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Jelgavas Street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Gavrilescu
Water 2021, 13(3), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030350
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 25 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 30 January 2021
Biological nutrient removal from wastewater to reach acceptable levels is needed to protect water resources and avoid eutrophication. The start-up of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from scratch was investigated in a 20 L sequence batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic sludge at 30 ± 0.5 °C with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2–3 days. The use of NH4Cl, NaNO2, and reject water as nitrogen sources created different salinity periods, in which the anammox process performance was assessed: low (<0.2 g of Cl/L), high (18.2 g of Cl/L), or optimum salinity (0.5–2 g of Cl/L). Reject water feeding gave the optimum salinity, with an average nitrogen removal efficiency of 80%, and a TNRR of 0.08 kg N/m3/d being achieved after 193 days. The main aim was to show the effect of a hydrazine addition on the specific anammox activity (SAA) and denitrification activity in the start-up process to boost the autotrophic nitrogen removal from scratch. The effect of the anammox intermediate hydrazine addition was tested to assess its concentration effect (range of 2–12.5 mg of N2H4/L) on diminishing denitrifier activity and accelerating anammox activity at the same time. Heterotrophic denitrifiers’ activity was diminished by all hydrazine additions compared to the control; 5 mg of N2H4/L added enhanced SAA compared to the control, achieving an SAA of 0.72 (±0.01) mg N/g MLSS/h, while the test with 7.5 mg of N2H4/L reached the highest overall SAA of 0.98 (±0.09) mg N g/MLSS/h. The addition of trace amounts of hydrazine for 6 h was also able to enhance SAA after inhibition by organic carbon source sodium acetate addition at a high C/N ratio of 10/1. The start-up of anammox bacteria from the aerobic–anaerobic suspended biomass was successful, with hydrazine significantly accelerating anammox activity and decreasing denitrifier activity, making the method applicable for side-stream as well as mainstream treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: anammox; reject water; salinity; hydrazine; granular biomass; anammox activity; nitrogen removal anammox; reject water; salinity; hydrazine; granular biomass; anammox activity; nitrogen removal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zekker, I.; Artemchuk, O.; Rikmann, E.; Ohimai, K.; Dhar Bhowmick, G.; Madhao Ghangrekar, M.; Burlakovs, J.; Tenno, T. Start-Up of Anammox SBR from Non-Specific Inoculum and Process Acceleration Methods by Hydrazine. Water 2021, 13, 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030350

AMA Style

Zekker I, Artemchuk O, Rikmann E, Ohimai K, Dhar Bhowmick G, Madhao Ghangrekar M, Burlakovs J, Tenno T. Start-Up of Anammox SBR from Non-Specific Inoculum and Process Acceleration Methods by Hydrazine. Water. 2021; 13(3):350. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zekker, Ivar; Artemchuk, Oleg; Rikmann, Ergo; Ohimai, Kelvin; Dhar Bhowmick, Gourav; Madhao Ghangrekar, Makarand; Burlakovs, Juris; Tenno, Taavo. 2021. "Start-Up of Anammox SBR from Non-Specific Inoculum and Process Acceleration Methods by Hydrazine" Water 13, no. 3: 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030350

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