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Article

Impacts of Large-Scale Groundwater Exploitation Based on Long-Term Evolution of Hydraulic Heads in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

1
Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Department of Geology, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
2
Department of Geological Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
3
Dhaka Water Supply & Sewerage Authority, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Polemio
Water 2021, 13(10), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101357
Received: 17 April 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 8 May 2021 / Published: 13 May 2021
Dhaka city has emerged as the fastest-growing megacity, having more than 20 million inhabitants, with a growth rate of 3.62%. Unplanned and rapid urbanization, coupled with exponential population growth, has significantly altered the groundwater dynamics in Dhaka city. This study concentrates on the evolution of long-term piezometric heads of the Upper Dupi Tila aquifer (UDA) and the Middle Dupi Tila aquifer (MDA) based on long-term hydrographs, piezometric maps and synthetic graphical overviews of piezometric trends. Due to over-exploitation, the piezometric level (PL) has declined deeper than −85 and −65 m PWD (Public Works Department reference datum) in UDA and MDA, respectively. The highest rate of decline was observed in the south-central to southeastern parts of the city both in UDA (4.0 m/year) and MDA (5.74 m/year). The results clearly show that the rates of decline in PL vary from 2.25 to 5.74 m/year in both aquifers of the city, and urban expansion has greatly affected the shape and extent of the depression cone over the past four decades. The magnitudes of the depression cones in both aquifers seem to pose a considerable threat to groundwater resources, indicating that the current exploitation is not sustainable at all. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater over-exploitation; population growth; city expansion; hydrographs; piezometric maps; depression cone groundwater over-exploitation; population growth; city expansion; hydrographs; piezometric maps; depression cone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, M.; Van Camp, M.; Hossain, D.; Sarker, M.M.R.; Khatun, S.; Walraevens, K. Impacts of Large-Scale Groundwater Exploitation Based on Long-Term Evolution of Hydraulic Heads in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Water 2021, 13, 1357. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101357

AMA Style

Islam M, Van Camp M, Hossain D, Sarker MMR, Khatun S, Walraevens K. Impacts of Large-Scale Groundwater Exploitation Based on Long-Term Evolution of Hydraulic Heads in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Water. 2021; 13(10):1357. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101357

Chicago/Turabian Style

Islam, Mazeda, Marc Van Camp, Delwar Hossain, Md. M.R. Sarker, Shahina Khatun, and Kristine Walraevens. 2021. "Impacts of Large-Scale Groundwater Exploitation Based on Long-Term Evolution of Hydraulic Heads in Dhaka City, Bangladesh" Water 13, no. 10: 1357. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101357

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