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Article

Effects of Prometryn Exposure Scenarios on Microcystis aeruginosa Growth and Water Qualities in Incubator Experiments

Numerical Simulation Group for Water Environment, Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Remediation and Pollution Control for Urban Ecological Environment, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China
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Academic Editor: Per-Erik Mellander
Water 2021, 13(10), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101346
Received: 7 April 2021 / Revised: 3 May 2021 / Accepted: 5 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Although multiple herbicide exposures are more prospective to occur in water, many previous studies were carried out as single herbicide exposure. To investigate the toxic effect of prometryn on cyanobacteria and water qualities, single and double prometryn exposures (at different growth phases) on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and concentrations of nutrients were compared after a 44-day experiment. Results indicated that under single exposure, maximum inhibition rates were 4.7–12.0% higher than those under double exposures. Correspondingly, the maximum Microcystis aeruginosa densities and growth rates under single exposure were 10.3–21.1% and 19.5–37.7% lower than those under double exposures (p < 0.05), respectively. These findings revealed that repeated prometryn exposures resulted in a reduction in biological effects, because the time of application and the concentration injected during the first application were both significant factors in the biological effects of prometryn. Prometryn exposure scenarios did not have a significant effect on nutrient or nutrient consumption concentrations (p > 0.05). In general, the pattern of nutrient limitation showed a shift from phosphorus to nitrogen limitation. The quantified relationships between Microcystis aeruginosa growth rates and consumed nutrients were studied. Based on the above findings, we believe that a high-dose and single prometryn exposure is a more effective exposure pattern for limiting cyanobacteria growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: herbicide; exposure scenarios; cyanobacteria; water environment; equations herbicide; exposure scenarios; cyanobacteria; water environment; equations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Z.; Huang, S.; Huang, X.; Liang, X.; Akram, W.; Khatoon, Z. Effects of Prometryn Exposure Scenarios on Microcystis aeruginosa Growth and Water Qualities in Incubator Experiments. Water 2021, 13, 1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101346

AMA Style

Yang Z, Huang S, Huang X, Liang X, Akram W, Khatoon Z. Effects of Prometryn Exposure Scenarios on Microcystis aeruginosa Growth and Water Qualities in Incubator Experiments. Water. 2021; 13(10):1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101346

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Zhenjiang, Suiliang Huang, Xiaowen Huang, Xiaofu Liang, Waseem Akram, and Zobia Khatoon. 2021. "Effects of Prometryn Exposure Scenarios on Microcystis aeruginosa Growth and Water Qualities in Incubator Experiments" Water 13, no. 10: 1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101346

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