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Article

Understanding the Biogeochemical Impacts of Fish Farms Using a Benthic-Pelagic Model

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Section of Oceanography and Biogeochemistry, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, 0349 Oslo, Norway
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Laboratory of Land-Ocean Interactions and the Anthropogenic Impact, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117218 Moscow, Russia
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Section of Oceanography and Biogeochemistry, Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA Vest), 5006 Bergen, Norway
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Akvaplan-niva, Fram Centre for Climate and the Environment, 9296 Tromsø, Norway
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University Centre in Svalbard, 9171 Longyearbyen, Norway
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Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
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Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
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Deep-Sea Ecology and Biogeochemistry Research Group, The Lyell Centre for Earth and Marine Science and Technology, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
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Institute of Marine Research, Department Tromsø, P.O. Box 6606 Langnes, 9296 Tromsø, Norway
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Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
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SKLEC-NIVA Centre for Marine and Coastal Research, State Key Laboratory for Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(9), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092384
Received: 10 June 2020 / Revised: 13 August 2020 / Accepted: 19 August 2020 / Published: 25 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biogeochemical Modeling)
Sustainable development of the salmon farming industry requires knowledge of the biogeochemical impacts of fish farm emissions. To investigate the spatial and temporal scales of farm impacts on the water column and benthic biogeochemistry, we coupled the C-N-P-Si-O-S-Mn-Fe transformation model BROM with a 2-dimensional benthic-pelagic transport model (2DBP), considering vertical and horizontal transport in the water and upper 5 cm of sediments along a 10 km transect centered on a fish farm. The 2DBP model was forced by hydrophysical model data for the Hardangerfjord in western Norway. Model simulations showed reasonable agreement with field data from the Hardangerfjord in August 2016 (correlations between the model and observations were significant for most variables, and model biases were mostly <35%). The model predicted significant impacts on seafloor biogeochemistry up to 1 km from the fish farm (e.g., increased organic matter in sediments, oxygen depletion in bottom water and sediments, denitrification, metal and sulfur reduction), as well as detectable decreases in oxygen and increases in ammonium, phosphate and organic matter in the surface water near to the fish farm. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish farming; modeling; observations; waste; oxygen depletion; carrying capacity fish farming; modeling; observations; waste; oxygen depletion; carrying capacity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yakushev, E.V.; Wallhead, P.; Renaud, P.E.; Ilinskaya, A.; Protsenko, E.; Yakubov, S.; Pakhomova, S.; Sweetman, A.K.; Dunlop, K.; Berezina, A.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Dale, T. Understanding the Biogeochemical Impacts of Fish Farms Using a Benthic-Pelagic Model. Water 2020, 12, 2384. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092384

AMA Style

Yakushev EV, Wallhead P, Renaud PE, Ilinskaya A, Protsenko E, Yakubov S, Pakhomova S, Sweetman AK, Dunlop K, Berezina A, Bellerby RGJ, Dale T. Understanding the Biogeochemical Impacts of Fish Farms Using a Benthic-Pelagic Model. Water. 2020; 12(9):2384. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092384

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yakushev, Evgeniy V., Philip Wallhead, Paul E. Renaud, Alisa Ilinskaya, Elizaveta Protsenko, Shamil Yakubov, Svetlana Pakhomova, Andrew K. Sweetman, Kathy Dunlop, Anfisa Berezina, Richard G.J. Bellerby, and Trine Dale. 2020. "Understanding the Biogeochemical Impacts of Fish Farms Using a Benthic-Pelagic Model" Water 12, no. 9: 2384. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092384

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